164 research outputs found

    Association between age of cannabis initiation and gray matter covariance networks in recent onset psychosis

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    Cannabis use during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of developing psychosis. According to a current hypothesis, this results from detrimental effects of early cannabis use on brain maturation during this vulnerable period. However, studies investigating the interaction between early cannabis use and brain structural alterations hitherto reported inconclusive findings. We investigated effects of age of cannabis initiation on psychosis using data from the multicentric Personalized Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management (PRONIA) and the Cannabis Induced Psychosis (CIP) studies, yielding a total sample of 102 clinically-relevant cannabis users with recent onset psychosis. GM covariance underlies shared maturational processes. Therefore, we performed source-based morphometry analysis with spatial constraints on structural brain networks showing significant alterations in schizophrenia in a previous multisite study, thus testing associations of these networks with the age of cannabis initiation and with confounding factors. Earlier cannabis initiation was associated with more severe positive symptoms in our cohort. Greater gray matter volume (GMV) in the previously identified cerebellar schizophrenia-related network had a significant association with early cannabis use, independent of several possibly confounding factors. Moreover, GMV in the cerebellar network was associated with lower volume in another network previously associated with schizophrenia, comprising the insula, superior temporal, and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings are in line with previous investigations in healthy cannabis users, and suggest that early initiation of cannabis perturbs the developmental trajectory of certain structural brain networks in a manner imparting risk for psychosis later in life

    The Psychopathology and Neuroanatomical Markers of Depression in Early Psychosis

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    Depression frequently occurs in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and predicts longer-term negative outcomes. It is possible that this depression is seen primarily in a distinct subgroup, which if identified could allow targeted treatments. We hypothesize that patients with recent-onset psychosis (ROP) and comorbid depression would be identifiable by symptoms and neuroanatomical features similar to those seen in recent-onset depression (ROD). Data were extracted from the multisite PRONIA study: 154 ROP patients (FEP within 3 months of treatment onset), of whom 83 were depressed (ROP+D) and 71 who were not depressed (ROP-D), 146 ROD patients, and 265 healthy controls (HC). Analyses included a (1) principal component analysis that established the similar symptom structure of depression in ROD and ROP+D, (2) supervised machine learning (ML) classification with repeated nested cross-validation based on depressive symptoms separating ROD vs ROP+D, which achieved a balanced accuracy (BAC) of 51%, and (3) neuroanatomical ML-based classification, using regions of interest generated from ROD subjects, which identified BAC of 50% (no better than chance) for separation of ROP+D vs ROP-D. We conclude that depression at a symptom level is broadly similar with or without psychosis status in recent-onset disorders; however, this is not driven by a separable depressed subgroup in FEP. Depression may be intrinsic to early stages of psychotic disorder, and thus treating depression could produce widespread benefit

    LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Comparative Study of Hindi and Dogri Languages with Regard to Machine Translation

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    Abstract Hindi, the Official language of India, is regarded as one of the widespread languages after English and Mandarin. Hindi belongs to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) languages, and Dogri language also belongs to the same subgroup of the Indo-European family, i.e., Indo-Aryan family of languages. The script of Hindi language is Devanagari and Dogri has its own script namely, …Ėog…ôra …ôkk h …ôr or …Ėog…ôr; but now the younger generation has adopted nag…ôri script for Dogri. As such, almost all the modern literature has been and is being written in devanag…ôri. For the development of Machine Translation system from Hindi to Dogri Language, there is a need to find the similarity between both the languages. It is found that both the languages are closely related to each other.This paper explains the closeness between the Hindi and Dogri Language scripts

    LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow A Diagnostic study of EFL Courses at the Community College of Jazan University

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    Abstract This paper explores the new routes and avenues of accelerating EFL learning in the Community College of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in EFL learning in the arena of education but it faces tardy progress. This is a common scenario in almost all the seats of learning in KSA. The authors of this study ventured to explore the possible pathways in the realm of language learning motivation with a view to accelerating and incorporating EFL teaching-learning affairs and made an attempt to diagnose the predicaments of EFL courses in Jazan Community College through survey questionnaires for teachers (see Appendix-1) and observation. The data of this research were collected through questionnaires from a total of 25 teachers. This study reports on the basis of statistical data analyses, observation and on primary and secondary sources. Finally, this paper offers some remarkable implications and recommendations to accelerate better EFL learning outcomes based on the results of the present research survey

    LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow A Stylistic Analysis of Iqbal's Shikwah Sardar Fayyaz ul Hassan ==================================================

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    Abstract Stylistics is a newly developed branch of linguistics. It studies a piece of literature through linguistic choices. It is a link discipline between linguistics and literary criticism. Pedagogical stylistics helps the learners to appreciate a literary text particularly, a poetic piece, in a faithful and objective way. The present paper is a Stylistics analysis of Dr. Mohammad Iqbal's Shikwah, a famous poem which is appeared in his book "Bang-e-Dra", the call of the road

    LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Point of Departure in Texts Developed by Native and Non-native Writers

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    Abstract This study made frequency and functional analysis of point of departure in reading comprehension texts developed by native and non-native writers. Sixteen texts from four reading comprehension textbooks were selected and analyzed for the marked and unmarked point of departures. Differences between the two texts in terms of marked and unmarked point of departures were reported by the result. The result of chi-square test illustrated that these differences were not statically significant. This is justified in terms of genre similarity. The findings of this study are applicable in designing reading comprehension syllabus

    LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Problems of Teachers in Developing Computer Assisted Instructions at University Level

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    Abstract The study was descriptive in nature and aimed to explore the problems of teachers in developing computer assisted instructions at university level. A purposive sample of twenty eight university teacher was taken for study. Participants were different lecturers, Assist professors and Professors. A questionnaire was used as a tool to find out general perceptions of teachers about computer assisted instructions and prevailing hindrances of university teachers in their development. Data was analyzed and interpreted on average and by calculating a t-test to determine the difference of hindrances among teachers with and without computer qualification. Researcher found considerable hindrances among university teachers in developing Computer Assisted Instructions. Difference among teachers with and without computer qualification was also determined. Areas needed to be improved were administrative support, provision of new PCs, extra funding

    Language in India www.languageinindia

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    Abstract With the realization of increased needs of English language in Bangladesh in the backdrop of globalization, emphasis has been placed on effective learning of this language. Hence, as practiced globally, the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) was introduced in Bangladesh in 1998-1999 with a view to enhancing the quality of learning among the students of different levels. This study looks into CLT as a method and its application at the mainstream higher secondary level of institutions in Bangladesh. The study investigates into factors that have made Bangladesh

    LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Beginning Teaching

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    Abstract No teacher can ever forget the very first class he/she has ever engaged. It is a nerveracking experience one would rather not discuss. Teaching in the degree college does not require you to go through any sort of training. Teachers have practically no experience whatsoever with engaging an audience and particularly youngsters. Today, when looking back in retrospect after eleven years of teaching a whole lot of subjects and streams, I wonder how it would have been if I had some training in teaching from the beginning. No matter how sure one is about his or her knowledge of the subject taught, approaching a class for the first time and teaching a language to the second language learners is a very daunting task. It requires specialized training, which is still not provided. It is not just abou
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