55 research outputs found

### Merging history as a function of halo environment

According to the hierarchical scenario, galaxies form via merging and
accretion of small objects. Using N-body simulations, we study the frequency of
merging events in the history of the halos. We find that at z<~2 the merging
rate of the overall halo population can be described by a simple power law
(1+z)^3. The main emphasis of the paper is on the effects of environment of
halos at the present epoch (z=0). We find that the halos located inside
clusters have formed earlier (dz \approx 1) than isolated halos of the same
mass. At low redshifts (z<1), the merger rate of cluster halos is 3 times lower
than that of isolated halos and 2 times lower than merger rate of halos that
end up in groups by z=0. At higher redshifts (z~1-4), progenitors of cluster
and group halos have 3--5 times higher merger rates than isolated halos. We
briefly discuss implications of our results for galaxy evolution in different
environments.Comment: submitted to the Astrophys. Journal; 11 pages, 9 figs., LaTeX (uses
emulateapj.sty

### Galaxies in N-body simulations: overcoming the overmerging problem

We present analysis of the evolution of dark matter halos in dense
environments of groups and clusters in dissipationless cosmological
simulations. The premature destruction of halos in such environments, known as
the overmerging, reduces the predictive power of N-body simulations and makes
difficult any comparison between models and observations. We analyze the
possible processes that cause the overmerging and assess the extent to which
this problem can be cured with current computer resources and codes. Using both
analytic estimates and high resolution numerical simulations, we argue that the
overmerging is mainly due to the lack of numerical resolution. We find that the
force and mass resolution required for a simulated halo to survive in galaxy
groups and clusters is extremely high and was almost never reached before: ~1-3
kpc and 10^8-10^9 Msun, respectively. We use the high-resolution Adaptive
Refinement Tree (ART) N-body code to run cosmological simulations with the
particle mass of \approx 2x10^8/h Msun} and the spatial resolution of \approx
1-2/h kpc, and show that in these simulations the halos do survive in regions
that would appear overmerged with lower force resolution. Nevertheless, the
halo identification in very dense environments remains a challenge even with
the resolution this high. We present two new halo finding algorithms developed
to identify both isolated and satellite halos that are stable (existed at
previous moments) and gravitationally bound. To illustrate the use of the
satellite halos that survive the overmerging, we present a series of halo
statistics, that can be compared with those of observed galaxies. (Abridged)Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ, substantional revisions after the
first version, LaTeX 23 pages, 18 figs. (uses emulateapj.sty),
Full-resolution version of Fig.9 is available upon reques

### $R^2$ corrections to the cosmological dynamics of inflation in the Palatini formulation

We investigate the corrections to the inflationary cosmological dynamics due
to a $R^2$ term in the Palatini formulation which may arise as quantum
corrections to the effective Lagrangian in early universe. We found that the
standard Friedmann equation will not be changed when the scalar field is in the
potential energy dominated era. However, in the kinetic energy dominated era,
the standard Friedmann equation will be modified and in the case of closed and
flat universe, the Modified Friedmann equation will automatically require that
the initial kinetic energy density of the scalar field must be in sub-Planckian
scale.Comment: 11 pages, no figures. Accepted by Class.Quant.Grav.v2:References
adde

### Probability for Primordial Black Holes Pair in 1/R Gravity

The probability for quantum creation of an inflationary universe with a pair
of black holes in 1/R - gravitational theory has been studied. Considering a
gravitational action which includes a cosmological constant ($\Lambda$) in
addition to $\delta R^{- 1}$ term, the probability has been evaluated in a
semiclassical approximation with Hartle-Hawking boundary condition. We obtain
instanton solutions determined by the parameters $\delta$ and $\Lambda$
satisfying the constraint $\delta \leq \frac{4 \Lambda^{2}}{3}$. However, we
note that two different classes of instanton solutions exists in the region $0
< \delta < \frac{4 \Lambda^{2}}{3}$. The probabilities of creation of such
configurations are evaluated. It is found that the probability of creation of a
universe with a pair of black holes is strongly suppressed with a positive
cosmological constant except in one case when $0 < \delta < \Lambda^{2}$. It is
also found that gravitational instanton solution is permitted even with
$\Lambda = 0$ but one has to consider $\delta < 0$. However, in the later case
a universe with a pair of black holes is less probable.Comment: 15 pages, no figure. submitted to Phys. Rev.

### Palatini formulation of the $R^{-1}$modified gravity with an additionally squared scalar curvature term

In this paper by deriving the Modified Friedmann equation in the Palatini
formulation of $R^2$ gravity, first we discuss the problem of whether in
Palatini formulation an additional $R^2$ term in Einstein's General Relativity
action can drive an inflation. We show that the Palatini formulation of $R^2$
gravity cannot lead to the gravity-driven inflation as in the metric formalism.
If considering no zero radiation and matter energy densities, we obtain that
only under rather restrictive assumption about the radiation and matter energy
densities there will be a mild power-law inflation $a(t)\sim t^2$, which is
obviously different from the original vacuum energy-like driven inflation. Then
we demonstrate that in the Palatini formulation of a more generally modified
gravity, i.e., the $1/R+R^2$ model that intends to explain both the current
cosmic acceleration and early time inflation, accelerating cosmic expansion
achieved at late Universe evolution times under the model parameters satisfying
$\alpha\ll\beta$.Comment: 14 pages, accepted for publication by CQ

### Nuclear activity in galaxy pairs: a spectroscopic analysis of 48 UZC-BGPs

Galaxy pairs are ideal sites in which to investigate the role of interaction
on nuclear activity. For this reason we have undertaken a spectroscopic survey
of a large homogeneous sample of galaxy pairs (UZC-BGP) and we present the
results of the nuclear spectral classification of 48 pairs (more than half of
the whole sample). The fraction of emission line galaxies is extremely large,
especially among spirals (84 % and 95 %, for early and late spirals
respectively). SB is the most frequent type of nuclear activity encountered (30
% of galaxies) while AGNs are only 19%. The fractions raise to 45 % and 22 %
when considering only spirals. Late spirals are characterized by both an
unusual increase (35 %) of AGN activity and high luminosity (44 % have M_B
<-20.0 + 5log h). LLAGNs are only 8% of the total number of galaxies, but this
activity could be present in another 10 % of the galaxies (LLAGN candidates).
Absorption line galaxies reside mostly (61 %) in S0 galaxies and display the
lowest B luminosity in the sample, only 18 % of them have M_B < -20 + 5 log h,
but together with LLAGNs they are the most massive galaxies in the sample.
Intense-SB nuclei are found in galaxy pairs with galaxy-galaxy projected
separations up to 160 h^{-1} kpc suggesting that in bright isolated galaxy
pairs interaction may be at work and effective up to that distance. AGNs are
characterized by an advanced morphology while SB phenomenon occurs with the
same frequency in early and late spirals. LLAGNs and LLAGN candidates do not
always show similar properties, a finding which might confirm the heterogeneous
nature of this class of objects. Half LLAGNs are hosted in galaxies showing
visible signs of interaction with fainter companions, suggesting that minor
interactions might be a driving mechanism for a relevant fraction of LLAGNs.Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures, accepted by A&

### Density profiles of dark matter haloes: diversity and dependence on environment

(Abridged) We study the outer density profiles of dark matter haloes
predicted by a generalized secondary infall model and observed in a N-body
cosmological simulation of a \Lambda CDM model. We find substantial systematic
variations in shapes and concentrations of the halo profiles as well as a
strong correlation of the profiles with the environment. In the N-body
simulation, the average outer slope of the density profiles, \beta (\rho\propto
r^{-\beta}), of isolated haloes is \approx 2.9; 68% of these haloes have values
of \beta between 2.5 and 3.8. Haloes in dense environments of clusters are more
concentrated and exhibit a broad distribution of \beta with values larger than
for isolated haloes . Contrary to what one may expect, the haloes contained
within groups and galaxy systems are less concentrated and have flatter outer
density profiles than the isolated haloes. The concentration decreases with
M_h, but its scatter for a given mass is substantial. The mass and circular
velocity of the haloes are strongly correlated: M_h \propto V_m^{\alpha} with
\alpha ~ 3.3 (isolated) and ~3.5 (haloes in clusters). For M_h=10^12M_sun the
rms deviations from these relations are \Delta logM_h=0.12 and 0.18,
respectively. Approximately 30% of the haloes are contained within larger
haloes or have massive companions (larger than ~0.3 the mass of the current
halo) within 3 virial radii. The remaining 70% of the haloes are isolated
objects. The distribution of \beta as well as the concentration-mass and
M_h-V_m relations for the isolated haloes agree very well with the predictions
of our seminumerical approach which is based on a generalization of the
secondary infall model and on the extended Press-Schechter formalism.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures included, uses mn.sty, accepted by MNRAS. Minor
modifications, new and updated reference

### Chaotic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology

We show that the dynamics of a spatially closed Friedmann - Robertson -
Walker Universe conformally coupled to a real, free, massive scalar field, is
chaotic, for large enough field amplitudes. We do so by proving that this
system is integrable under the adiabatic approximation, but that the
corresponding KAM tori break up when non adiabatic terms are considered. This
finding is confirmed by numerical evaluation of the Lyapunov exponents
associated with the system, among other criteria. Chaos sets strong limitations
to our ability to predict the value of the field at the Big Crunch, from its
given value at the Big Bang. (Figures available on request)Comment: 28 pages, 11 figure

### A Unified Approach to Variational Derivatives of Modified Gravitational Actions

Our main aim in this paper is to promote the coframe variational method as a
unified approach to derive field equations for any given gravitational action
containing the algebraic functions of the scalars constructed from the Riemann
curvature tensor and its contractions. We are able to derive a master equation
which expresses the variational derivatives of the generalized gravitational
actions in terms of the variational derivatives of its constituent curvature
scalars. Using the Lagrange multiplier method relative to an orthonormal
coframe, we investigate the variational procedures for modified gravitational
Lagrangian densities in spacetime dimensions $n\geqslant 3$. We study
well-known gravitational actions such as those involving the Gauss-Bonnet and
Ricci-squared, Kretchmann scalar, Weyl-squared terms and their algebraic
generalizations similar to generic $f(R)$ theories and the algebraic
generalization of sixth order gravitational Lagrangians. We put forth a new
model involving the gravitational Chern-Simons term and also give three
dimensional New massive gravity equations in a new form in terms of the Cotton
2-form

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