5 research outputs found

    Various clinical scenarios leading to development of the string sign of the internal thoracic artery after coronary bypass surgery: the role of competitive flow, a case series

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is the choice for grafting of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). One possible mechanism of the rare graft failure involve the presence of competitive flow.</p> <p>Method</p> <p>105 patients who had undergone coronary bypass grafting between 1998 and 2000 were included in this observational study. The recatheterizations were performed 28 months after the operations. The rate of patency the LIMA grafts was determined, and the cases with graft failure were analyzed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The LIMA graft was patent in 99 patients (94%). Six patients (6%) exhibited diffuse involution of the graft (string sign). The string sign was always associated with competitive flow as the basis of the LIMA graft involution. In one case quantitative re-evaluation of the preoperative coronary angiography revealed merely less than 50% diameter stenosis on the LAD with a nonligated side-branch of the LIMA. At recatheterization in two patients the pressure wire measurements demonstrated only a non-significant decrease of the fractional flow reserve (0.83 and 0.89), despite the 53% and 57% diameter stenosis in the angiogram. Another patient displayeda significant regression of the LAD lesion between the pre- and postoperative coronary angiography (from 76% to 44%) as the cause of the development of the competitive flow. In one instance, a radial artery graft on the LAD during a redo bypass operation resulted in competitive flow in the radial graft due to the greater diameter than that of the LIMA. In a further patient, competitive flow developed from a short sequential part of the LIMA graft between the nonsignificantly stenosed diagonal branch and the LAD, with involution of the main part of the graft to the diagonal branch.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The most common cause of the development of the string sign of a LIMA graft due to competitive flow is overassessment of the lesion of the LAD. Regression of a previous lesion or some other neighboring graft can also cause the phenomenon.</p

    The Effects of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on the Flow in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients&mdash;Geometry in Focus

    No full text
    Evaluation of the effect of three dimensional (3D) coronary plaque characteristics derived from two dimensional (2D) invasive angiography images (ICA) on coronary flow determined by TIMI frame count (TFC) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been thoroughly investigated. A total of 71 patients with STEMI, and 73 with NSTEMI were enrolled after primary angioplasty. Pre- and post-PCI TFCs were obtained. From 2D images, 3D reconstruction was performed of the culprit vessel, and multiple plaque parameters were measured. In STEMI, the average post-PCI frame count decreased significantly, resulting in better flow. With regards to 2/3D parameters, no differences were found between the STEMI and NSTEMI groups. The 3D parameters in the subgroup with an increase with at least three frames resulting in worsening post-PCI flow were compared to parameters of the patients with improved or significantly not change flow (delta frame count &lt; 3), and greater minimal luminal diameter and area was found in the worsening (increased) frame group. In STEMI 2/3D, parameters showed no correlation with worsening flow, whereas in NSTEMI, greater minimal luminal diameter and area correlated with decreased flow. We can conclude that certain 2/3D parameters can predict slower flow in ACS, resulting in the use of GP IIb/IIIa receptor blocker

    Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary vein anatomy prior to cryoablation: validation with cardiac CT scan

    No full text
    Abstract Background Anatomical characteristics of the left atrium and the pulmonary veins (PVs) may be relevant to the success rate of cryoballoon (CB)-ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is considered as the gold standard for preablation imaging. Recently, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTOE) has been proposed for preprocedural assessment of cardiac structures relevant to CB-ablation. The accuracy of 3DTOE has not been validated by other imaging modalities. Objective We prospectively evaluated the feasibility and the accuracy of 3DTOE imaging for the assessment of left atrial and PV structures prior to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). In addition, CCT was used to validate the measurements obtained with 3DTOE. Methods PV anatomy of 67 patients (59.7% men, mean age 58.5 ± 10.5 years) was assessed using both 3DTOE and CCT scan prior to PVI with the Arctic Front CB. The following parameters were measured bilaterally: PV ostium area (OA), the major and minor axis diameters of the ostium (a > b) and the width of the carina between the superior and the inferior PVs. In addition, the width of the left lateral ridge (LLR) between the left atrial appendage and the left superior PV. Evaluation of inter-technique agreement was based on linear regression with Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and Bland–Altman analysis of biases and limits of agreement. Results Moderate positive correlation (PCC 0.5–0.7) was demonstrated between the two imaging methods for the right superior PV’s OA and both axis diameters, the width of the LLR and left superior PV (LSPV) minor axis diameter (b) with limits of agreement ˂50% and no significant biases. Low positive or negligible correlation (PCC < 0.5) was found for both inferior PV parameters. Conclusions Detailed assessment of the right superior PV parameters, LLR and LSPV b is feasible with 3DTOE prior to AF ablation. This 3DTOE measurements demonstrated a clinically acceptable inter-technique agreement with those obtained with CCT. Graphical Abstrac