405 research outputs found

    Findings from the Workshop on User-Centered Design of Language Archives

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    This white paper describes findings from the workshop on User-Centered Design of Language Archives organized in February 2016 by Christina Wasson (University of North Texas) and Gary Holton (University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa). It reviews relevant aspects of language archiving and user-centered design to construct the rationale for the workshop, relates key insights produced during the workshop, and outlines next steps in the larger research trajectory initiated by this workshop. The purpose of this white paper is to make all of the findings from the workshop publicly available in a short time frame, and without the constraints of a journal article concerning length, audience, format, and so forth. Selections from this white paper will be used in subsequent journal articles. So much was learned during the workshop; we wanted to provide a thorough documentation to ensure that none of the key insights would be lost. We consider this document a white paper because it provides the foundational insights and initial conceptual frameworks that will guide us in our further research on the user-centered design of language archives. We hope this report will be useful to members of all stakeholder groups seeking to develop user-centered designs for language archives.U.S. National Science Foundation Documenting Endangered Languages Program grants BCS-1543763 and BCS-1543828

    Universal Algorithm for Simulating and Evaluating Cyclic Voltammetry at Macroporous Electrodes by Considering Random Arrays of Microelectrodes

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    An algorithm for the simulation and evaluation of cyclic voltammetry (CV) at macroporous electrodes such as felts, foams, and layered structures is presented. By considering 1D, 2D, and 3D arrays of electrode sheets, cylindrical microelectrodes, hollow‐cylindrical microelectrodes, and hollowspherical microelectrodes the internal diffusion domains of the macroporous structures are approximated. A universal algorithm providing the timedependent surface concentrations of the electrochemically active species, required for simulating cyclic voltammetry responses of the individual planar, cylindrical, and spherical microelectrodes, is presented as well. An essential ingredient of the algorithm, which is based on Laplace integral transformation techniques, is the use of a modified Talbot contour for the inverse Laplace transformation. It is demonstrated that first‐order homogeneous chemical kinetics preceding and/or following the electrochemical reaction and electrochemically active species with non‐equal diffusion coefficients can be included in all diffusion models as well. The proposed theory is supported by experimental data acquired for a reference reaction, the oxidation of [Fe(CN)6]4− at platinum electrodes as well as for a technically relevant reaction, the oxidation of VO2+ at carbon felt electrodes. Based on our calculation strategy, we provide a powerful open source tool for simulating and evaluating CV data implemented into a Python graphical user interface (GUI)

    Ball games and nutrition counseling improve postural control in overweight children

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    Background: Motor skills are impaired in overweight children whose levels of physical activity are low and these children are more likely to sustain lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively in overweight children the influence of ball games and nutrition counseling on postural control. Methods: In all, 46 overweight children (age: 6–12 years, BMI: female: 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2, male: 26.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2 (mean value ± standard deviation) were examined prospectively in four randomized groups (ball games, nutrition counseling, ball games and nutrition counseling, and group without intervention) for six months. A one-legged standing test was performed. Results: The children demonstrated improved postural control after six months of intervention: mean difference M1-M2 ± standard deviation: 5 ± 6 error points (p < 0.001, T = 4.906), whereas the control group without intervention did not show any significant improvement: 2 ± 8 error points (p = 0.357, T = 0.972). Conclusions: Ball games and nutrition counseling have a positive influence on postural control and therefore could help prevent injury. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01825174. Registered April 2, 201

    A simple and effective method for the accurate extraction of kinetic parameters using differential Tafel plots

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    The practice of estimating the transfer coefficient (α) and the exchange current (i0) by arbitrarily placing a straight line on Tafel plots has led to high variance in these parameters between different research groups. Generating Tafel plots by finding kinetic current, ik from the conventional mass transfer correction method does not guarantee an accurate estimation of the α and i0. This is because a substantial difference in values of α and i0 can arise from only minor deviations in the calculated values of ik. These minor deviations are often not easy to recognise in polarisation curves and Tafel plots. Recalling the IUPAC definition of α , the Tafel plots can be alternatively represented as differential Tafel plots (DTPs) by taking the first order differential of Tafel plots with respect to overpotential. Without further complex processing of the existing raw data, many crucial observations can be made from DTP which is otherwise very difficult to observe from Tafel plots. These for example include a) many perfectly looking experimental linear Tafel plots (R2 > 0.999) can give rise to incorrect kinetic parameters b) substantial differences in values of α and i0 can arise when the limiting current (iL) is just off by 5% while performing the mass transfer correction c) irrespective of the magnitude of the double layer charging current (ic), the Tafel plots can still get significantly skewed when the ratio of i0/ic is small. Hence, in order to determine accurate values of α and i0, we show how the DTP approach can be applied to experimental polarisation curves having well defined iL, poorly defined iL and no iL at all
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