107,954 research outputs found

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with risk of ADHD in children at age 10

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    Introduction: Maternal inflammation during pregnancy may affect early neurodevelopment in offspring as suggested by preclinical and register data. However, clinical evidence for risk of aberrant neurodevelopment later in childhood is scarce. In the population-based COPSAC2010 mother–child cohort, we investigated associations between maternal inflammation levels during pregnancy and the risk of a diagnosis of ADHD as well as the load of ADHD symptoms in the children at age 10.Methods: The COPSAC2010 cohort consists of 700 mother–child pairs followed prospectively since pregnancy week 24. Maternal high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) level at week 24 of gestation was investigated in relation to child neurodevelopment by age 10 using logistic and linear regression models with extensive confounder adjustment, including socioeconomic status and maternal polygenic risk of ADHD. The children completed a comprehensive examination of neurodevelopment including categorical (i.e., diagnostic) and dimensional (i.e., symptom load) psychopathology using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and parental rated ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS).Results: A total of 604 (86 %) of the 700 children in the COPSAC2010 cohort participated in the COPSYCH visit at age 10. Sixty-five (10.8 %) fulfilled a research diagnosis of ADHD (16 girls and 49 boys). Higher maternal hs-CRP level in pregnancy at week 24 (median 5.4 mg/L) was significantly associated with increased risk for a diagnosis of ADHD, adjusted OR 1.40, 95 %CI (1.16–1.70), p = 0.001. Additionally, higher maternal hs-CRP was associated with increased ADHD symptom load in the entire cohort, reflected by ADHD-RS raw scores.Discussion: These clinical data demonstrated a robust association of prenatal maternal inflammation assessed by hs-CRP with a diagnosis of ADHD by age 10. Moreover, maternal inflammation was associated with ADHD symptom load in the complete cohort. Identifying inflammation as an important marker will provide a potential target for future increased awareness and prevention during pregnancy thereby ultimately improving neurodevelopmental outcomes in children

    Improving medical care for adults with complex rare genetic syndromes:A multidisciplinary approach

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    Fine, I\u27m A Terrible Person

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    Fine, I\u27m A Terrible Person, is a funny, heart wrenching, mother daughter story. 73-year-old, Aurora Hmans Feldenburg, a hapless, perpetually broke, eccentric, divorcee living in the wealthy enclave of Marin County, is wakened by a phone call informing her that her father\u27s widow, has died. Possibly her last chance at solvency she decides to drive to Los Angeles to see if there is a will and how she might benefit. Aurora is always ready for the next get rich scheme. Aurora\u27s high-strung daughter, 43-year-old Leyla Feldenburg Rothstein, is a hypersensitive, insecure, perfectionist, insomniac, emotionally damaged from her father\u27s lifelong abuse and rejection. She is married to a wealthy, Jewish prince charming, investment banker who specializes in the legal Cannabis industry. Leyla spends her days keeping up with the other Marin uber mom\u27s, manically pursuing perfection in herself, her home, and her children. When she overhears a conversation at parent\u27s night at her children\u27s elite private school, and suspects her husband is embarking on an affair, she decides to sneak into a Cannabis business conference he is attending, also in LA, to spy on him and put her suspicions to rest. While at the conference she accidentally ingests 40 mg of THC packed granola bite samples. Aurora and Leyla\u27s separate quests simultaneously intersect and enmesh over the course of a weekend, where they both end up staying with LA cousins, quirky, endearing, Sephardic Jews who speak Ladino, mostly in proverbs and cook prodigious quantities of delicacies from the old country. When Aurora\u27s meager inheritance is stolen by a once trusted cousin, she drags Leyla into a ludicrous chase. Unable to resist the pull of the trauma bond she shares with her infuriating mother; Leyla fails to adhere to her boundaries-even after years of therapy-and risks losing everything to another one of Aurora\u27s harebrained schemes

    Hearables: feasibility of recording cardiac rhythms from single in-ear locations

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    The ear is well positioned to accommodate both brain and vital signs monitoring, via so-called hearable devices. Consequently, ear-based electroencephalography has recently garnered great interest. However, despite the considerable potential of hearable based cardiac monitoring, the biophysics and characteristic cardiac rhythm of ear-based electrocardiography (ECG) are not yet well understood. To this end, we map the cardiac potential on the ear through volume conductor modelling and measurements on multiple subjects. In addition, in order to demonstrate real-world feasibility of in-ear ECG, measurements are conducted throughout a long-time simulated driving task. As a means of evaluation, the correspondence between the cardiac rhythms obtained via the ear-based and standard Lead I measurements, with respect to the shape and timing of the cardiac rhythm, is verified through three measures of similarity: the Pearson correlation, and measures of amplitude and timing deviations. A high correspondence between the cardiac rhythms obtained via the ear-based and Lead I measurements is rigorously confirmed through agreement between simulation and measurement, while the real-world feasibility was conclusively demonstrated through efficacious cardiac rhythm monitoring during prolonged driving. This work opens new avenues for seamless, hearable-based cardiac monitoring that extends beyond heart rate detection to offer cardiac rhythm examination in the community

    Modeling undetected poliovirus circulation following the 2022 outbreak in the United States

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    ABSTRACTBackground New York State (NYS) reported a polio case (June 2022) and outbreak of imported type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) (last positive wastewater detection in February 2023), for which uncertainty remains about potential ongoing undetected transmission.Research Design and Methods Extending a prior deterministic model, we apply an established stochastic modeling approach to characterize the confidence about no circulation (CNC) of cVDPV2 as a function of time since the last detected signal of transmission (i.e. poliovirus positive acute flaccid myelitis case or wastewater sample).Results With the surveillance coverage for the NYS population majority and its focus on outbreak counties, modeling suggests a high CNC (95%) within 3–10 months of the last positive surveillance signal, depending on surveillance sensitivity and population mixing patterns. Uncertainty about surveillance sensitivity implies longer durations required to achieve higher CNC.Conclusions In populations that maintain high overall immunization coverage with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), rare polio cases may occur in un(der)-vaccinated individuals. Modeling demonstrates the unlikeliness of type 2 outbreaks reestablishing endemic transmission or resulting in large absolute numbers of paralytic cases. Achieving and maintaining high immunization coverage with IPV remains the most effective measure to prevent outbreaks and shorten the duration of imported poliovirus transmission

    From Basic Principles of Protein–Polysaccharide Association to the Rational Design of Thermally Sensitive Materials

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    Biology resolves design requirements toward functional materials by creating nanostructured composites, where individual components are combined to maximize the macroscale material performance. A major challenge in utilizing such design principles is the trade-off between the preservation of individual component properties and emerging composite functionalities. Here, polysaccharide pectin and silk fibroin were investigated in their composite form with pectin as a thermal-responsive ion conductor and fibroin with exceptional mechanical strength. We show that segregative phase separation occurs upon mixing, and within a limited compositional range, domains ∼50 nm in size are formed and distributed homogeneously so that decent matrix collective properties are established. The composite is characterized by slight conformational changes in the silk domains, sequestering the hydrogen-bonded β-sheets as well as the emergence of randomized pectin orientations. However, most dominant in the composite’s properties is the introduction of dense domain interfaces, leading to increased hydration, surface hydrophilicity, and increased strain of the composite material. Using controlled surface charging in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we further demonstrate Ca ions (Ca2+) diffusion in the pectin domains, with which the fingerprints of interactions at domain interfaces are revealed. Both the thermal response and the electrical conductance were found to be strongly dependent on the degree of composite hydration. Our results provide a fundamental understanding of the role of interfacial interactions and their potential applications in the design of material properties, polysaccharide–protein composites in particular

    Table_2_Influenza vaccine compatibility among hospitalized patients during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.XLSX

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    IntroductionFollowing the significant decrease in SARS-CoV-2 cases worldwide, Israel, as well as other countries, have again been faced with a rise in seasonal influenza. This study compared circulating influenza A and B in hospitalized patients in Israel with the influenza strains in the vaccine following the 2021–2022 winter season which was dominated by the omicron variant.MethodsNasopharyngeal samples of 16,325 patients were examined for the detection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B. Phylogenetic trees of hemagglutinin were then prepared using sanger sequencing. Vaccine immunogenicity was also performed using the hemagglutination inhibition test.ResultsOf the 16,325 nasopharyngeal samples collected from hospitalized patients between September 2021 (Week 40) and April 2023 (Week 15), 7.5% were found to be positive for influenza. Phylogenetic analyses show that in the 2021–2022 winter season, the leading virus subtype was influenza A(H3N2), belonging to clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2. However, the following winter season was dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, which belongs to clade 6B.aA.5a.2. The circulating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain showed a shift from the vaccine strain, while the co-circulating influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B strains were similar to those of the vaccine. Antigenic analysis coincided with the sequence analysis.DiscussionInfluenza prevalence during 2022–2023 returned to typical levels as seen prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, which may suggest a gradual viral adaptation to SARS-CoV-2 variants. Domination of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was observed uniquely in Israel compared to Europe and USA and phylogenetic and antigenic analysis showed lower recognition of the vaccine with the circulating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Israel compared to the vaccine.</p

    Table_3_Influenza vaccine compatibility among hospitalized patients during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.DOCX

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    IntroductionFollowing the significant decrease in SARS-CoV-2 cases worldwide, Israel, as well as other countries, have again been faced with a rise in seasonal influenza. This study compared circulating influenza A and B in hospitalized patients in Israel with the influenza strains in the vaccine following the 2021–2022 winter season which was dominated by the omicron variant.MethodsNasopharyngeal samples of 16,325 patients were examined for the detection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B. Phylogenetic trees of hemagglutinin were then prepared using sanger sequencing. Vaccine immunogenicity was also performed using the hemagglutination inhibition test.ResultsOf the 16,325 nasopharyngeal samples collected from hospitalized patients between September 2021 (Week 40) and April 2023 (Week 15), 7.5% were found to be positive for influenza. Phylogenetic analyses show that in the 2021–2022 winter season, the leading virus subtype was influenza A(H3N2), belonging to clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2. However, the following winter season was dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, which belongs to clade 6B.aA.5a.2. The circulating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain showed a shift from the vaccine strain, while the co-circulating influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B strains were similar to those of the vaccine. Antigenic analysis coincided with the sequence analysis.DiscussionInfluenza prevalence during 2022–2023 returned to typical levels as seen prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, which may suggest a gradual viral adaptation to SARS-CoV-2 variants. Domination of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was observed uniquely in Israel compared to Europe and USA and phylogenetic and antigenic analysis showed lower recognition of the vaccine with the circulating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Israel compared to the vaccine.</p

    Improving medical care for adults with complex rare genetic syndromes:A multidisciplinary approach

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