23 research outputs found

    Providing baseline data for conservation‚ÄďHeart rate monitoring in captive scimitar-horned oryx

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    Heart rate biologging has been successfully used to study wildlife responses to natural and human-caused stressors (e.g., hunting, landscape of fear). Although rarely deployed to inform conservation, heart rate biologging may be particularly valuable for assessing success in wildlife reintroductions. We conducted a case study for testing and validating the use of subcutaneous heart rate monitors in eight captive scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), a once-extinct species that is currently being restored to the wild. We evaluated biologger safety and accuracy while collecting long-term baseline data and assessing factors explaining variation in heart rate. None of the biologgers were rejected after implantation, with successful data capture for 16‚Äď21¬†months. Heart rate detection accuracy was high (83%‚Äď99%) for six of the individuals with left lateral placement of the biologgers. We excluded data from two individuals with a right lateral placement because accuracies were below 60%. Average heart rate for the six scimitar-horned oryx was 60.3 ¬Ī 12.7¬†bpm, and varied by about 12¬†bpm between individuals, with a minimum of 31¬†bpm and a maximum of 188¬†bpm across individuals. Scimitar-horned oryx displayed distinct circadian rhythms in heart rate and activity. Heart rate and activity were low early in the morning and peaked near dusk. Circadian rhythm in heart rate and activity were relatively unchanged across season, but hourly averages for heart rate and activity were higher in spring and summer, respectively. Variation in hourly heart rate averages was best explained by a combination of activity, hour, astronomical season, ambient temperature, and an interaction term for hour and season. Increases in activity appeared to result in the largest changes in heart rate. We concluded that biologgers are safe and accurate and can be deployed in free-ranging and reintroduced scimitar-horned oryx. In addition to current monitoring practices of reintroduced scimitar-horned oryx, the resulting biologging data could significantly aid in 1) evaluating care and management action prior to release, 2) characterizing different animal personalities and how these might affect reintroduction outcomes for individual animals, and 3) identifying stressors after release to determine their timing, duration, and impact on released animals. Heart rate monitoring in released scimitar-horned oryx may also aid in advancing our knowledge about how desert ungulates adapt to extreme environmental variation in their habitats (e.g., heat, drought)

    The effectiveness of insulin therapy in the functional and morphological recovery of leydig cells in rats submitted to Diabetes mellitus

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    The effects of systemic insulin administration at different concentrations on the testicular tissue of diabetic adult rats, induced by streptozotocin, are evaluated by the morphological analysis of spermatogenic process. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into 1) Control Group: they received citrate buffer, by intraperitoneal injection; 2) Diabetic Group: induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. kg-1 of body weight); 3) Insulin 50%: induced diabetes treated with half of standard dosage of insulin; 4) Insulin 100%: induced diabetes treated with standard dose of insulin. After eight weeks, animals were weighted and anesthetized; testicles were removed and processed in resin. Body and testicular weight of diabetic rats decreased when compared to that of control. Parameters increased with insulin therapy. Testosterone levels were low in diabetic animals but rates recovered after insulin therapy. Nuclear diameter and volume of Leydig cells decreased in diabetic rats although they significantly increased after insulin therapy. Results showed that the administration of insulin in diabetic rats promoted a protective effect of testicular parenchyma, enhancing efficient recovery on testosterone levels and increase in daily sperm production

    Medidas antropométricas associadas ao tempo de encarceramento de pessoas privadas de liberdade

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    Resumo Objetivo Analisar as medidas antropom√©tricas associadas ao tempo de encarceramento de pessoas privadas de liberdade. M√©todos Estudo transversal, realizado com 220 homens privados de liberdade. Os dados foram coletados por meio de instrumento que abrangia informa√ß√Ķes do encarceramento atual, sociodemogr√°ficas e das condi√ß√Ķes de vida antes do encarceramento, al√©m de aferi√ß√£o de medidas antropom√©tricas. Utilizaram-se estat√≠stica descritiva, testes de associa√ß√Ķes e ajuste de modelos de regress√£o log√≠stica bin√°ria controlados pelo tempo de encarceramento (at√© 1ano e mais de 1ano). Resultados Houve associa√ß√£o significativa entre o tempo de encarceramento e a circunfer√™ncia abdominal (RC de 0,41; IC95%0,16-0,97). Os resultados da correla√ß√£o de Spearman apontaram que, √† medida que aumentou o tempo de encarceramento, as medidas antropom√©tricas diminu√≠ram, com rela√ß√£o negativa de fraca magnitude e significativa apenas para o √≠ndice de conicidade (r=-0,1648; p=0,0144). Os modelos ajustados controlados pelo tempo de encarceramento mostraram associa√ß√Ķes significativas com idade em anos (RC de 1,08; IC95%=1,04;1,12) e circunfer√™ncia abdominal; idade (RC de 1,08; IC95%1,04-1,12) e raz√£o cintura e estatura; e idade (RC de 1,10; IC95%1,06-1,14), anos de estudo (RC de 2,17; IC95%1,10-4,26) e possuir parceiro(a) (RC de 0,46; IC95%0,22-0,93) com o √≠ndice de conicidade. Conclus√£o √Ä medida que aumenta o tempo de encarceramento, h√° redu√ß√£o das medidas antropom√©tricas das pessoas privadas de liberdade. As vari√°veis antropom√©tricas influenciam diretamente no desenvolvimento de doen√ßas cr√īnicas n√£o transmiss√≠veis e devem ser monitoradas para elabora√ß√£o de estrat√©gias que minimizem os riscos e os agravos √† sa√ļde dessa popula√ß√£o vulner√°vel

    Brazilian Flora 2020: Leveraging the power of a collaborative scientific network

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    International audienceThe shortage of reliable primary taxonomic data limits the description of biological taxa and the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes, complicating biogeographical, ecological, and evolutionary studies. This deficit creates a significant taxonomic impediment to biodiversity research and conservation planning. The taxonomic impediment and the biodiversity crisis are widely recognized, highlighting the urgent need for reliable taxonomic data. Over the past decade, numerous countries worldwide have devoted considerable effort to Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC), which called for the preparation of a working list of all known plant species by 2010 and an online world Flora by 2020. Brazil is a megadiverse country, home to more of the world's known plant species than any other country. Despite that, Flora Brasiliensis, concluded in 1906, was the last comprehensive treatment of the Brazilian flora. The lack of accurate estimates of the number of species of algae, fungi, and plants occurring in Brazil contributes to the prevailing taxonomic impediment and delays progress towards the GSPC targets. Over the past 12‚ÄČyears, a legion of taxonomists motivated to meet Target 1 of the GSPC, worked together to gather and integrate knowledge on the algal, plant, and fungal diversity of Brazil. Overall, a team of about 980 taxonomists joined efforts in a highly collaborative project that used cybertaxonomy to prepare an updated Flora of Brazil, showing the power of scientific collaboration to reach ambitious goals. This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian Flora 2020 and provides taxonomic and spatial updates on the algae, fungi, and plants found in one of the world's most biodiverse countries. We further identify collection gaps and summarize future goals that extend beyond 2020. Our results show that Brazil is home to 46,975 native species of algae, fungi, and plants, of which 19,669 are endemic to the country. The data compiled to date suggests that the Atlantic Rainforest might be the most diverse Brazilian domain for all plant groups except gymnosperms, which are most diverse in the Amazon. However, scientific knowledge of Brazilian diversity is still unequally distributed, with the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado being the most intensively sampled and studied biomes in the country. In times of ‚Äúscientific reductionism‚ÄĚ, with botanical and mycological sciences suffering pervasive depreciation in recent decades, the first online Flora of Brazil 2020 significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of taxonomic data available for algae, fungi, and plants from Brazil. This project also made all the information freely available online, providing a firm foundation for future research and for the management, conservation, and sustainable use of the Brazilian funga and flora

    MeningoCast

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    Podcast sobre Meningite exercido pelos alunos do 2¬įano de Enfermagem em conjunto com a Unidade Curricular de Patologia e com o projeto de extens√£o Clube do Saber.Podcast sobre Meningite, realizado pelos alunos do 2¬į ano de Enfermagem exercido na Unidade Curricular de Patologia coordenada pela Profa. Dra. Andr√©a Cristina de Moraes Malinverni e pelo Prof. Dr. Ricardo Artigiani Neto. Publicado no projeto de extens√£o Clube do Saber

    Novel p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor Reverses Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats

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    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is strongly implicated in cardiovascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricle (RV) failure. The effects of a newly designed p38 inhibitor, LASSBio-1824, were investigated in experimentally induced PH. Male Wistar rats were exposed to hypoxia and SU5416 (SuHx), and normoxic rats were used as controls. Oral treatment was performed for 14 days with either vehicle or LASSBio-1824 (50 mg/kg). Pulmonary vascular resistance and RV structure and function were assessed by echocardiography and catheterization. Histological, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of lung and RV were performed to investigate cardiovascular remodeling and inflammation. Treatment with LASSBio-1824 normalized vascular resistance by attenuating vessel muscularization and endothelial dysfunction. In the heart, treatment decreased RV systolic pressure, hypertrophy and collagen content, improving cardiac function. Protein content of TNF-α, iNOS, phosphorylated p38 and caspase-3 were reduced both in lung vessels and RV tissues after treatment and a reduced activation of transcription factor c-fos was found in cardiomyocytes of treated SuHx rats. Therefore, LASSBio-1824 represents a potential candidate for remodeling-targeted treatment of PH

    Geoeconomic variations in epidemiology, ventilation management, and outcomes in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome: a pooled analysis of four observational studies

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    Background: Geoeconomic variations in epidemiology, the practice of ventilation, and outcome in invasively ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain unexplored. In this analysis we aim to address these gaps using individual patient data of four large observational studies. Methods: In this pooled analysis we harmonised individual patient data from the ERICC, LUNG SAFE, PRoVENT, and PRoVENT-iMiC prospective observational studies, which were conducted from June, 2011, to December, 2018, in 534 ICUs in 54 countries. We used the 2016 World Bank classification to define two geoeconomic regions: middle-income countries (MICs) and high-income countries (HICs). ARDS was defined according to the Berlin criteria. Descriptive statistics were used to compare patients in MICs versus HICs. The primary outcome was the use of low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) for the first 3 days of mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were key ventilation parameters (tidal volume size, positive end-expiratory pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen, peak pressure, plateau pressure, driving pressure, and respiratory rate), patient characteristics, the risk for and actual development of acute respiratory distress syndrome after the first day of ventilation, duration of ventilation, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality. Findings: Of the 7608 patients included in the original studies, this analysis included 3852 patients without ARDS, of whom 2345 were from MICs and 1507 were from HICs. Patients in MICs were younger, shorter and with a slightly lower body-mass index, more often had diabetes and active cancer, but less often chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure than patients from HICs. Sequential organ failure assessment scores were similar in MICs and HICs. Use of LTVV in MICs and HICs was comparable (42·4% vs 44·2%; absolute difference -1·69 [-9·58 to 6·11] p=0·67; data available in 3174 [82%] of 3852 patients). The median applied positive end expiratory pressure was lower in MICs than in HICs (5 [IQR 5-8] vs 6 [5-8] cm H2O; p=0·0011). ICU mortality was higher in MICs than in HICs (30·5% vs 19·9%; p=0·0004; adjusted effect 16·41% [95% CI 9·52-23·52]; p<0·0001) and was inversely associated with gross domestic product (adjusted odds ratio for a US$10 000 increase per capita 0·80 [95% CI 0·75-0·86]; p<0·0001). Interpretation: Despite similar disease severity and ventilation management, ICU mortality in patients without ARDS is higher in MICs than in HICs, with a strong association with country-level economic status

    Implementation of a Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program for improvement on quality of diet and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events: A randomized, multicenter trial

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    Background: Appropriate dietary recommendations represent a key part of secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the effectiveness of the implementation of a nutritional program on quality of diet, cardiovascular events, and death in patients with established CVD. Methods: In this open-label, multicenter trial conducted in 35 sites in Brazil, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 45 years or older to receive either the BALANCE Program (experimental group) or conventional nutrition advice (control group). The BALANCE Program included a unique nutritional education strategy to implement recommendations from guidelines, adapted to the use of affordable and regional foods. Adherence to diet was evaluated by the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Secondary end points included biochemical and anthropometric data, and blood pressure levels. Results: From March 5, 2013, to Abril 7, 2015, a total of 2534 eligible patients were randomly assigned to either the BALANCE Program group (n = 1,266) or the control group (n = 1,268) and were followed up for a median of 3.5 years. In total, 235 (9.3%) participants had been lost to follow-up. After 3 years of follow-up, mean modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (scale 0-70) was only slightly higher in the BALANCE group versus the control group (26.2 ¬Ī 8.4 vs 24.7 ¬Ī 8.6, P <.01), mainly due to a 0.5-serving/d greater intake of fruits and of vegetables in the BALANCE group. Primary end point events occurred in 236 participants (18.8%) in the BALANCE group and in 207 participants (16.4%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI 0.95-1.38; P =.15). Secondary end points did not differ between groups after follow-up. Conclusions: The BALANCE Program only slightly improved adherence to a healthy diet in patients with established CVD and had no significant effect on the incidence of cardiovascular events or death. ¬© 2019 The Author

    Sustainability Agenda for the Pantanal Wetland: Perspectives on a Collaborative Interface for Science, Policy, and Decision-Making

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    International audienceBuilding bridges between environmental and political agendas is essential nowadays in face of the increasing human pressure on natural environments, including wetlands. Wetlands provide critical ecosystem services for humanity and can generate a considerable direct or indirect income to the local communities. To meet many of the sustainable development goals, we need to move our trajectory from the current environmental destructive development to a wiser wetland use. The current article contain a proposed agenda for the Pantanal aiming the improvement of public policy for conservation in the Pantanal, one of the largest, most diverse, and continuous inland wetland in the world. We suggest and discuss a list of 11 essential interfaces between science, policy, and development in region linked to the proposed agenda. We believe that a functional science network can booster the collaborative capability to generate creative ideas and solutions to address the big challenges faced by the Pantanal wetland

    INCID√äNCIA DE DIST√öRBIOS MUSCULOESQUEL√ČTICOS EM POLICIAIS MILITARES PELO IMPACTO DO USO DE COLETE BAL√ćSTICO

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    Resumo: As les√Ķes por esfor√ßo repetitivo (LER) representam um grande problema para a sa√ļde p√ļblica. Este trabalho tem como objetivo, analisar a preval√™ncia de dist√ļrbios osteomusculares em policiais militares. O estudo trata-se de uma pesquisa do tipo observacional, transversal de car√°ter descritivo, participaram da pesquisa 26 policiais militares do sexo masculino, foram submetidos √† aplica√ß√£o dos question√°rios N√≥rdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares e do √≠ndice de Oswestry para Avalia√ß√£o da Dor. Os resultados apontam que os maiores √≠ndices de dor musculoesquel√©tica prevaleceram na regi√£o da coluna dorsal e lombar e na regi√£o do pesco√ßo, j√° em rela√ß√£o ao √≠ndice de Oswestry foi constatado que 30% da amostra sentiram dor em n√≠vel moderado. O uso di√°rio do colete bal√≠stico por policiais militares pode ocasionar dist√ļrbios osteomusculares, bem como desencadear dor, mesmo n√£o sendo fator de limita√ß√£o funcional grave para desempenho das atividades di√°rias
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