1,490 research outputs found

    bii4africa dataset

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    The bii4africa dataset is presented in a multi-spreadsheet .xlsx file. The raw data spreadsheet (‚ÄėScores_Raw‚Äô) includes 31,313 individual expert estimates of the impact of a sub-Saharan African land use on a species response group of terrestrial vertebrates or vascular plants. Estimates are reported as intactness scores - the remaining proportion of an ‚Äėintact‚Äô reference (pre-industrial or contemporary wilderness area) population of a species response group in a land use, on a scale from 0 (no individuals remain) through 0.5 (half the individuals remain), to 1 (same as the reference population) and, in limited cases, to 2 (two or more times the reference population). For species that thrive in human-modified landscapes, scores could be greater than 1 but not exceeding 2 to avoid extremely large scores biasing aggregation exercises. Expert comments are included alongside respective estimates

    bi4africa dataset - open source

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    The bii4africa dataset is presented in a multi-spreadsheet .ods file. The raw data spreadsheet (‚ÄėScores_Raw‚Äô) includes 31,313 individual expert estimates of the impact of a sub-Saharan African land use on a species response group of terrestrial vertebrates or vascular plants. Estimates are reported as intactness scores - the remaining proportion of an ‚Äėintact‚Äô reference (pre-industrial or contemporary wilderness area) population of a species response group in a land use, on a scale from 0 (no individuals remain) through 0.5 (half the individuals remain), to 1 (same as the reference population) and, in limited cases, to 2 (two or more times the reference population). For species that thrive in human-modified landscapes, scores could be greater than 1 but not exceeding 2 to avoid extremely large scores biasing aggregation exercises. Expert comments are included alongside respective estimates

    Validity of Ultrasound Imaging of Abductor Hallucis Volume Demonstrated by Strong Agreement with MRI

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    Intrinsic foot muscles such as abductor hallucis (ABDH) are crucial for function and mobility while influencing quality of life. Thus, being able to accurately measure foot muscle volume is important. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often considered to be the reference standard of medical imaging, ultrasound (US) provides a cost effective, rapid and dynamic way of assessing muscle size and function. PURPOSE: To investigate the validity and intratester reliability of US imaging in assessing ABDH volume compared to MRI. METHODS: US and MRI were employed to measure the right and left ABDH muscle volume involving 9 participants (females = 3; males = 6). Muscle volume of the ABDH was calculated across the muscle belly every 0.5 cm both manually by utilizing a truncated cone (TC) formula and with a semi-automation tool in the Osirix (OX) software. Pearson product correlation (r), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the measurement (SEm) and minimal detectable difference (MDD) were calculated. RESULTS: High correlations were detected between the US and MRI volume (cm3) measurements (r = 0.887) and between MRI TC and MRI OX (r = 0.986). Test reliability was excellent for both MRI and US measurements (ICC = 0.947 to 0.989). SEm value for the US was 0.409 cm3 with the percent SEm equal to 0.028%, while the SEm for MRI OX was 1.145 cm3 with a percent SEm of 0.072% and finally the SEm for MRI TC was 1.142 cm3 with a percent SEm of 0.071%. MDD value for the US was 1.135 cm3, while MRI OX MDD value was 3.174 cm3 and MRI TC MDD value was 3.166 cm3. CONCLUSIONS: US appears to be a valid and reliable alternative to MRI when measuring volume of the ABDH muscle. This method of US and MRI measurement can likely be used for assessing any of the deep small muscles of the foot

    The genomic footprint of whaling and isolation in fin whale populations

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    Abstract Twentieth century industrial whaling pushed several species to the brink of extinction, with fin whales being the most impacted. However, a small, resident population in the Gulf of California was not targeted by whaling. Here, we analyzed 50 whole-genomes from the Eastern North Pacific (ENP) and Gulf of California (GOC) fin whale populations to investigate their demographic history and the genomic effects of natural and human-induced bottlenecks. We show that the two populations diverged ~16,000 years ago, after which the ENP population expanded and then suffered a 99% reduction in effective size during the whaling period. In contrast, the GOC population remained small and isolated, receiving less than one migrant per generation. However, this low level of migration has been crucial for maintaining its viability. Our study exposes the severity of whaling, emphasizes the importance of migration, and demonstrates the use of genome-based analyses and simulations to inform conservation strategies

    The Science Performance of JWST as Characterized in Commissioning

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    This paper characterizes the actual science performance of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as determined from the six month commissioning period. We summarize the performance of the spacecraft, telescope, science instruments, and ground system, with an emphasis on differences from pre-launch expectations. Commissioning has made clear that JWST is fully capable of achieving the discoveries for which it was built. Moreover, almost across the board, the science performance of JWST is better than expected; in most cases, JWST will go deeper faster than expected. The telescope and instrument suite have demonstrated the sensitivity, stability, image quality, and spectral range that are necessary to transform our understanding of the cosmos through observations spanning from near-earth asteroids to the most distant galaxies.Comment: 5th version as accepted to PASP; 31 pages, 18 figures; https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1538-3873/acb29

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

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    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4m4m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5m6.5m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 years, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit.Comment: Accepted by PASP for the special issue on The James Webb Space Telescope Overview, 29 pages, 4 figure

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    No full text
    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4 m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5 m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 yr, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit

    The Science Performance of JWST as Characterized in Commissioning

    No full text
    This paper characterizes the actual science performance of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as determined from the six month commissioning period. We summarize the performance of the spacecraft, telescope, science instruments, and ground system, with an emphasis on differences from pre-launch expectations. Commissioning has made clear that JWST is fully capable of achieving the discoveries for which it was built. Moreover, almost across the board, the science performance of JWST is better than expected; in most cases, JWST will go deeper faster than expected. The telescope and instrument suite have demonstrated the sensitivity, stability, image quality, and spectral range that are necessary to transform our understanding of the cosmos through observations spanning from near-earth asteroids to the most distant galaxies

    The SunBEAm birth cohort: Protocol design

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    Background: Food allergy (FA) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are common conditions that often present in the first year of life. Identification of underlying mechanisms and environmental determinants of FA and AD is essential to develop and implement effective prevention and treatment strategies. Objectives: We sought to describe the design of the Systems Biology of Early Atopy (SunBEAm) birth cohort. Methods: Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and administered through the Consortium for Food Allergy Research (CoFAR), SunBEAm is a US population-based, multicenter birth cohort that enrolls pregnant mothers, fathers, and their newborns and follows them to 3 years. Questionnaire and biosampling strategies were developed to apply a systems biology approach to identify environmental, immunologic, and multiomic determinants of AD, FA, and other allergic outcomes. Results: Enrollment is currently underway. On the basis of an estimated FA prevalence of 6%, the enrollment goal is 2500 infants. AD is defined on the basis of questionnaire and assessment, and FA is defined by an algorithm combining history and testing. Although any FA will be recorded, we focus on the diagnosis of egg, milk, and peanut at 5 months, adding wheat, soy, cashew, hazelnut, walnut, codfish, shrimp, and sesame starting at 12 months. Sampling includes blood, hair, stool, dust, water, tape strips, skin swabs, nasal secretions, nasal swabs, saliva, urine, functional aspects of the skin, and maternal breast milk and vaginal swabs. Conclusions: The SunBEAm birth cohort will provide a rich repository of data and specimens to interrogate mechanisms and determinants of early allergic outcomes, with an emphasis on FA, AD, and systems biology
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