810 research outputs found

    Model Configuration And Data Management In The Short-Term Water Information Forecasting Tools

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    The Short-term Water Information and Forecasting Tools (SWIFT) is a suite of tools for flood and short-term streamflow forecasting, consisting of a collection of hydrologic model components and utilities. Catchments are modeled using conceptual subareas and a node-link structure for channel routing. The tools comprise modules for calibration, model state updating, output error correction, ensemble runs and data assimilation. Given the combinatorial nature of the modelling experiments and the sub-daily time steps typically used for simulations, the volume of model configurations and time series data is substantial and its management is not trivial. SWIFT is currently used mostly for research purposes but has also been used operationally, with intersecting but significantly different requirements. Early versions of SWIFT used mostly ad-hoc text files handled via Fortran code, with limited use of netCDF for time series data. The configuration and data handling modules have since been redesigned. The model configuration now follows a design where the data model is decoupled from the on-disk persistence mechanism. For research purposes the preferred on-disk format is JSON, to leverage numerous software libraries in a variety of languages, while retaining the legacy option of custom tab-separated text formats when it is a preferred access arrangement for the researcher. By decoupling data model and data persistence, it is much easier to interchangeably use for instance relational databases to provide stricter provenance and audit trail capabilities in an operational flood forecasting context. For the time series data, given the volume and required throughput, text based formats are usually inadequate. A schema derived from CF conventions has been designed to efficiently handle time series for SWIFT

    Introduction: Rethinking career development

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    This chapter introduces readers to The Oxford Handbook of Career Development and to the field of career development. The origins of the field are discussed in relation to vocational guidance, differential psychology, interactionist sociology, and life course development. The selection of the term career development for this volume is explained with regard to three interlocking themes: the broader contexts of career development, including government policy; the wide range of theory concerned with career-related experiences, phenomena, and behaviour; and the broad spectrum of career helping practices, including one-to-one work and group work. The inspiration and aims for the volume are set out, and the challenges associated with terminology in the field are acknowledged. The editors seek to provide a state-of-the-art reference point for the field of career development, and engender a transdisciplinary and international dialogue that explores key current ideas, debates, and controversies. The volume is divided into three sections. The first explores the economic, educational, and public policy contexts for practice. The second section focuses on concepts and explores the rich theoretical landscape of the field. The third section turns to practice, and the translation of ideas into action to support individuals and groups with their career development.N/

    Approaches to supporting open educational resource projects

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    This paper examines CETIS experience of supporting a nationwide programme to release Open Educational Resources (the JISC Higher Education Academy UKOER Pilot Programme ). We consider how our model of support could inform others and be adapted to encourage sustainable technical support networks for Open Course Ware initiatives. As a national initiative involving universities throughout the UK, the UKOER programme involved a diverse range of OER providers, including individual educators, discipline-based consortia and institutions. Given this diversity it was recognised from the outset that no single technical solution would fit all projects, and therefore no specific tools, descriptive standards, exchange or dissemination mechanisms were mandated (apart from a requirement that the resources produced be represented in a national repository of learning materials ). In supporting this programme we have had to address diverse approaches and communities and it is likely that any similar pan-institutional initiative for supporting the release of OERs would face similar challenges. Our approach to programme support has sought to move from the detail of specific support issues towards underlying support principles; thereby anticipating other issues and promoting good practice. Our method has been: to provoke conversation through technical presentations and discussion opportunities at meetings or through blog posts; to investigate the technical choices made by individual projects through technical review conversations and record summary details of these conversations publicly online through an interface supporting searching and browsing; and to respond to issues arising from these calls or from project blogs. In considering how this approach could be used more widely we will look at the challenges of working openly, the organisational overhead of this approach, its adaptability, and the role we think it has played in supporting the management and dissemination of OERs for this programme

    A randomised trial of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements on the human intestinal microbiota

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    Objective; Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anticolorectal cancer (CRC) activity. The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary omega-3 PUFAs alter the mouse intestinal microbiome compatible with antineoplastic activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplements on the faecal microbiome in middle-aged, healthy volunteers (n=22). Design A randomised, open-label, cross-over trial of 8 weeks’ treatment with 4 g mixed eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid in two formulations (soft-gel capsules and Smartfish drinks), separated by a 12-week ‘washout’ period. Faecal samples were collected at five time-points for microbiome analysis by 16S ribosomal RNA PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results; Both omega-3 PUFA formulations induced similar changes in RBC fatty acid content, except that drinks were associated with a larger, and more prolonged, decrease in omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid than the capsule intervention (p=0.02). There were no significant changes in α or β diversity, or phyla composition, associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, a reversible increased abundance of several genera, including Bifidobacterium, Roseburia and Lactobacillus was observed with one or both omega-3 PUFA interventions. Microbiome changes did not correlate with RBC omega-3 PUFA incorporation or development of omega-3 PUFA-induced diarrhoea. There were no treatment order effects. Conclusion; Omega-3 PUFA supplementation induces a reversible increase in several short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, independently of the method of administration. There is no simple relationship between the intestinal microbiome and systemic omega-3 PUFA exposure. Trial registration number; ISRCTN18662143

    ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

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    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at λ =2.6 mm. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well resolved for the first time. In the west nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends out to 0[fraction of arcsecond symbol]2 radius (74 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor of 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick (τ [subscript 2.6mm ~ 1]) at λ = 2.6mm with a dust brightness temperature of ~147 K. The column of interstellar matter at this nucleus is N[subscript H2] ≥ 2 x 10 [superscript 26] cm[superscript −2], corresponding to ~900 gr cm[superscript −2]. The east nucleus is more elongated with radial extent 0[fraction of arcsecond symbol]3 or ~111 pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves, and velocity dispersions. In the west nucleus, there is evidence of a central Keplerian component requiring a central mass of 8 × 10[superscript 8]M [subscript ⊙]. The intrinsic widths of the emission lines are a Δν(FWHM})=250 (west) and 120 (east) km s[superscript −1]. Given the very short dissipation timescales for turbulence (≤ [superscript 5] years), we suggest that the line widths may be due to semicoherent motions within the nuclear disks. The symmetry of the nuclear disk structures is impressive, implying the merger timescale is significantly longer than the rotation period of the disks

    A tool for assessing the climate change mitigation and health impacts of environmental policies: the Cities Rapid Assessment Framework for Transformation (CRAFT).

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    Background: A growing number of cities, including Greater London, have set ambitious targets, including detailed policies and implementation plans, to reach global goals on sustainability, health, and climate change. Here we present a tool for a rapid assessment of the magnitude of impact of specific policy initiatives to reach these targets. The decision-support tool simultaneously quantifies the environmental and health impacts of specified selected policies. Methods: The 'Cities Rapid Assessment Framework for Transformation (CRAFT)' tool was applied to Greater London. CRAFT quantifies the effects of ten environmental policies on changes in (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, (2) exposures to environmental hazards, (3) travel-related physical activity, and (4) mortality (the number of attributable deaths avoided in one typical year). Publicly available data and epidemiological evidence were used to make rapid quantitative estimates of these effects based on proportional reductions in GHG emissions and environmental exposures from current baseline levels and to compute the mortality impacts. Results: The CRAFT tool estimates that, of roughly 50,000 annual deaths in Greater London, the modelled hazards (PM 2.5 (from indoor and outdoor sources), outdoor NO 2, indoor radon, cold, overheating) and low travel-related physical activity are responsible for approximately 10,000 premature environment-related deaths. Implementing the selected polices could reduce the annual mortality number by about 20% (~1,900 deaths) by 2050. The majority of these deaths (1,700) may be avoided through increased uptake in active travel. Thus, out of ten environmental policies, the 'active travel' policy provides the greatest health benefit. Also, implementing the ten policies results in a GHG reduction of around 90%. Conclusions: The CRAFT tool quantifies the effects of city policies on reducing GHG emissions, decreasing environmental health hazards, and improving public health. The tool has potential value for policy makers through providing quantitative estimates of health impacts to support and prioritise policy options

    Affectus Hispaniae en la historiografía del Alto Imperio

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    This paper analyses texts written by Greek and Latin High Empire historians dealing with Hispania. Some of the authors have a very positive view (Florus, Iustinus, Appian) while others are clearly negative (Veleius Paterculus, Valerius Maximus) though most of them show little interest, indifference or variety of opinions. When there is interest in the region or praise, it is because the author comes from Hispania or he is trying to please an emperor born in Hispania, but it could also be due to a universal conception of history revealing a critical attitude towards Roman imperialism, as in Appian. The praise found in Iustinus’s epitome should be attributed to the author of the epitome rather than to Pompeius Trogus. This can be taken as evidence for situating Iustinus’s life and work in the 2nd century A.D. Loathing of Hispania seems to have its origins in conservative, ‘optimate’ nationalist circles, who perceive the province as the ‘popular’ region that acclaimed and welcomed ‘seditious’ individuals such as Tiberius Gracchus and Sertorius.Se estudian en este trabajo los textos de historiadores del Alto Imperio, latinos y griegos, que tratan sobre Hispania. En algunos autores encontramos una visión muy positiva (Floro, Justino, Apiano) y en otros claramente negativa (Veleyo Patérculo, Valerio Máximo), aunque en la mayoría de los casos hay escasa atención, indiferencia o diversidad de opiniones. El interés por la región y los elogios pueden estar motivados por el origen hispánico del autor o su voluntad de agradar a algún emperador oriundo de Hispania, pero también por una concepción universal de la historia que denota en ocasiones una posición crítica con el imperialismo romano, como es el caso de Apiano. La alabanza que hallamos en el epítome de Justino creemos que debe atribuirse más al epitomador que a Pompeyo Trogo, lo que apoyaría una datación temprana de la vida y la obra de Justino (s. II d.C.). La aversión hacia Hispania parece haber surgido en medios conservadores, “optimates” nacionalistas, que ven la provincia como el territorio “popular”, que encumbró y acogió a “sediciosos” como Tiberio Graco y Sertorio
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