62 research outputs found

    Stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders (report from an EBMT preceptorship meeting)

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    The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Chronic Malignancies Working Party held a preceptorship meeting in Turin, Italy on 25-26 September 2014, to discuss the role of stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders. Scientists and clinicians working in the field gathered to discuss a variety of topics including the results of recent clinical trials, basic research, the concept of minimal residual disease, and immune modulation. As individual presentations revealed, important advances have occurred in our understanding of the pathophysiology of myeloma and the role that SCT, along with other forms of immunotherapy, plays in treating it. Each presentation stimulated discussion and exchange of ideas among the attendants. We decided to summarize and, importantly, to update the meeting proceedings in this review to share stimulating discussions and ideas on potentially novel treatment strategies among clinicians

    Predictors of Response to Hydroxyurea and Switch to Ruxolitinib in HU-Resistant Polycythaemia VERA Patients: A Real-World PV-NET Study

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    In polycythemia vera (PV), the prognostic relevance of an ELN-defined complete response (CR) to hydroxyurea (HU), the predictors of response, and patients' triggers for switching to ruxolitinib are uncertain. In a real-world analysis, we evaluated the predictors of response, their impact on the clinical outcomes of CR to HU, and the correlations between partial or no response (PR/NR) and a patient switching to ruxolitinib. Among 563 PV patients receiving HU for ≥12 months, 166 (29.5%) achieved CR, 264 achieved PR, and 133 achieved NR. In a multivariate analysis, the absence of splenomegaly (p = 0.03), pruritus (p = 0.002), and a median HU dose of ≥1 g/day (p < 0.001) remained associated with CR. Adverse events were more frequent with a median HU dose of ≥1 g/day. Overall, 283 PR/NR patients (71.3%) continued HU, and 114 switched to ruxolitinib. In the 449 patients receiving only HU, rates of thrombosis, hemorrhages, progression, and overall survival were comparable among the CR, PR, and NR groups. Many PV patients received underdosed HU, leading to lower CR and toxicity rates. In addition, many patients continued HU despite a PR/NR; however, splenomegaly and other symptoms were the main drivers of an early switch. Better HU management, standardization of the criteria for and timing of responses to HU, and adequate intervention in poor responders should be advised

    Molecular purging of multiple myeloma cells by ex-vivo culture and retroviral transduction of mobilized-blood CD34+ cells

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Tumor cell contamination of the apheresis in multiple myeloma is likely to affect disease-free and overall survival after autografting.</p> <p>Objective</p> <p>To purge myeloma aphereses from tumor contaminants with a novel culture-based purging method.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We cultured myeloma-positive CD34<sup>+ </sup>PB samples in conditions that retained multipotency of hematopoietic stem cells, but were unfavourable to survival of plasma cells. Moreover, we exploited the resistance of myeloma plasma cells to retroviral transduction by targeting the hematopoietic CD34<sup>+ </sup>cell population with a retroviral vector carrying a selectable marker (the truncated form of the human receptor for nerve growth factor, ΔNGFR). We performed therefore a further myeloma purging step by selecting the transduced cells at the end of the culture.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Overall recovery of CD34<sup>+ </sup>cells after culture was 128.5%; ΔNGFR transduction rate was 28.8% for CD34<sup>+ </sup>cells and 0% for CD138-selected primary myeloma cells, respectively. Recovery of CD34<sup>+ </sup>cells after ΔNGFR selection was 22.3%. By patient-specific Ig-gene rearrangements, we assessed a decrease of 0.7–1.4 logs in tumor load after the CD34<sup>+ </sup>cell selection, and up to 2.3 logs after culture and ΔNGFR selection.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We conclude that <it>ex-vivo </it>culture and retroviral-mediated transduction of myeloma leukaphereses provide an efficient tumor cell purging.</p

    Conditioning regimen using busulfan plus melphalan in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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    Measurable Residual Disease in High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Mounting evidence suggests measurable residual disease (MRD) assessments are prognostic in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High-risk AML encompasses a subset of AML with poor response to therapy and prognosis, with features such as therapy-related AML, an antecedent hematologic disorder, extramedullary disease (in adults), and selected mutations and cytogenetic abnormalities. Historically, few patients with high-risk AML achieved deep and durable remission with conventional chemotherapy; however, newer agents might be more effective in achieving MRD-negative remission. CPX-351 (dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of daunorubicin/cytarabine at a synergistic ratio) demonstrated MRD-negativity rates of 36&ndash;64% across retrospective studies in adults with newly diagnosed high-risk AML and 84% in pediatric patients with first-relapse AML. Venetoclax (BCL2 inhibitor) demonstrated MRD-negativity rates of 33&ndash;53% in combination with hypomethylating agents for high-risk subgroups in studies of older adults with newly diagnosed AML who were ineligible for intensive therapy and 65% in combination with chemotherapy in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory AML. However, there is no consensus on optimal MRD methodology in AML, and the use of different techniques, sample sources, sensitivity thresholds, and the timing of assessments limit comparisons across studies. Robust MRD analyses are needed in future clinical studies, and MRD monitoring should become a routine aspect of AML management
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