287 research outputs found

    Additional file 1 of Sustained low functional impairment in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA): which are the primary outcomes that should be targeted to achieve this?

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    Additional file 1: Supplementary Table 1. Predictors of Sustained Low BASFI (<3) Between 12 and 18 Months Using Non-Responder Imputation (Sensitivity Analysis). BASFI=Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; OR=Odds Ratio; CI=Confidence Interval; M=Month; BASDAI= Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; ASDAS=Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score; ID=Inactive Disease; LDA=Low Disease Activity. Bold P-values denote statistical significance. Multivariable Analysis 1: primary analysis; Multivariable Analysis 2: secondary analysis including ASDAS-LDA instead of ASDAS-ID

    Mycorrhizal feedbacks influence global forest structure and diversity

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    One mechanism proposed to explain high species diversity in tropical systems is strong negative conspecific density dependence (CDD), which reduces recruitment of juveniles in proximity to conspecific adult plants. Although evidence shows that plant-specific soil pathogens can drive negative CDD, trees also form key mutualisms with mycorrhizal fungi, which may counteract these effects. Across 43 large-scale forest plots worldwide, we tested whether ectomycorrhizal tree species exhibit weaker negative CDD than arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species. We further tested for conmycorrhizal density dependence (CMDD) to test for benefit from shared mutualists. We found that the strength of CDD varies systematically with mycorrhizal type, with ectomycorrhizal tree species exhibiting higher sapling densities with increasing adult densities than arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species. Moreover, we found evidence of positive CMDD for tree species of both mycorrhizal types. Collectively, these findings indicate that mycorrhizal interactions likely play a foundational role in global forest diversity patterns and structure

    Sustained low functional impairment in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA): which are the primary outcomes that should be targeted to achieve this?

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    Abstract Objectives To (i) determine whether sustained disease activity states, as measured by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), impact function, and (ii) evaluate characteristics predicting sustained low functional impairment in a prospective axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) cohort. Methods Biologic Treatment Registry Across Canada (BioTRAC) was a multi-center, prospective registry that collected real-world data on axSpA patients receiving infliximab or golimumab between 2006 and 2017. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test baseline characteristics, treatment, and duration (at 6 and 12 months vs. only at 6 or 12 months vs. neither) of low BASDAI (< 3), ASDAS-inactive disease (ID)(< 1.3), and ASDAS-low disease activity (LDA) in predicting sustained low Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI)(< 3) between 12 and 18 months. The adjusted impact of achieving low disease state at 6 and/or 12 months on BASFI at 18 months was analyzed by generalized linear models. Results Eight hundred ten patients were enrolled. 33.7%, 13.4%, and 24.7% achieved sustained low BASDAI, ASDAS-ID, and ASDAS-LDA, respectively. In univariable GEE of baseline variables, age and baseline BASDAI, BASFI, and ASDAS significantly predicted sustained low BASFI. In multivariable GEE, sustained low BASDAI (p < 0.001), low BASDAI only at 6 or 12 months (p = 0.001), and baseline BASFI (p < 0.001) were the only predictors of sustained low BASFI. Sustained ASDAS-ID (p = 0.040) and ASDAS-LDA (p < 0.001) were also predictors when forced into the model. Similar results were obtained when evaluating the BASFI score at 18 months. Conclusion Sustained BASDAI < 3 may be a valid and feasible target for a treat-to-target strategy in axSpA having function as treatment goal

    A many-analysts approach to the relation between religiosity and well-being

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    A many-analysts approach to the relation between religiosity and well-being

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    The relation between religiosity and well-being is one of the most researched topics in the psychology of religion, yet the directionality and robustness of the effect remains debated. Here, we adopted a many-analysts approach to assess the robustness of this relation based on a new cross-cultural dataset (N = 10, 535 participants from 24 countries). We recruited 120 analysis teams to investigate (1) whether religious people self-report higher well-being, and (2) whether the relation between religiosity and self-reported well-being depends on perceived cultural norms of religion (i.e., whether it is considered normal and desirable to be religious in a given country). In a two-stage procedure, the teams first created an analysis plan and then executed their planned analysis on the data. For the first research question, all but 3 teams reported positive effect sizes with credible/confidence intervals excluding zero (median reported beta = 0.120). For the second research question, this was the case for 65% of the teams (median reported beta = 0.039). While most teams applied (multilevel) linear regression models, there was considerable variability in the choice of items used to construct the independent variables, the dependent variable, and the included covariates

    A Many-analysts Approach to the Relation Between Religiosity and Well-being

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    The relation between religiosity and well-being is one of the most researched topics in the psychology of religion, yet the directionality and robustness of the effect remains debated. Here, we adopted a many-analysts approach to assess the robustness of this relation based on a new cross-cultural dataset (N = 10, 535 participants from 24 countries). We recruited 120 analysis teams to investigate (1) whether religious people self-report higher well-being, and (2) whether the relation between religiosity and self-reported well-being depends on perceived cultural norms of religion (i.e., whether it is considered normal and desirable to be religious in a given country). In a two-stage procedure, the teams first created an analysis plan and then executed their planned analysis on the data. For the first research question, all but 3 teams reported positive effect sizes with credible/confidence intervals excluding zero (median reported β = 0.120). For the second research question, this was the case for 65% of the teams (median reported β = 0.039). While most teams applied (multilevel) linear regression models, there was considerable variability in the choice of items used to construct the independent variables, the dependent variable, and the included covariates

    The role of LCN2 and LCN2-MMP9 in spondylitis radiographic development: gender and HLA-B27 status differences

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    Background Male HLA-B27-positive radiographic-axial spondyloarthritis (r-axSpA) patients are prone to have severe spinal radiographic progression, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We recently showed that persistently elevated Lipocalin 2 (LCN2; L) reflects sacroiliac joint (SIJ) inflammation. LCN2 binds to MMP9. Concomitant elevation of L and LCN2-MMP9 (LM) was detected in many inflammatory diseases. We asked whether L and LM play similar roles in r-axSpA pathogenesis. Methods We analyzed 190 axSpA patients (123 radiographic and 67 non-radiographic axSpA) who had no detectable circulating Oncostatin M, to avoid complications due to cross-talk between pathways. L and LM levels from a single blood sample of each patient were measured and were correlated with MRI and modified stoke AS (mSASS) scoring. Association of elevated L (L+) or concurrent L+ and elevated LM (LM+) patterns with B27 status and gender were assessed. Results In L+LM+ axSpA patients, both L and LM levels correlated with MRI SPARCC SIJ scores, but only LM levels correlated with MRI Berlin Spine Scores, suggesting LM is a biomarker for both SIJ and spinal inflammation. Among patients with minimal spinal ankylosis (mSASSS < 10), 65% of male r-axSpA patients are L+LM+, while 30% and 64% of female patients are L+LM+ and L+, respectively, supporting the role of LM with disease progression. In B27+ L+LM+ male patients, both L and LM (but not CRP) levels correlate with mSASSS. B27 positivity and maleness have additive effects on spondylitis progression, suggesting concurrent high L and LM elevations are associated with B27+ male patients having more significant radiographic damage. L+ B27-negative male patients or L+ female patients are more likely to have milder disease. Conclusion L and LM are informative biomarkers for SIJ and spinal inflammation, as well as for ankylosing development in r-axSpA patients. Distinctive L+LM+ or L+ patterns not only could distinguish clinically aggressive vs milder course of disease, respectively, but also provide an explanation for B27-positive male patients being the most susceptible to severe ankylosis

    Distribution of biomass dynamics in relation to tree size in forests across the world

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    •Tree size shapes forest carbon dynamics and determines how trees interact with their environment, including a changing climate. Here, we conduct the first global analysis of among-site differences in how aboveground biomass stocks and fluxes are distributed with tree size. •We analyzed repeat tree censuses from 25 large-scale (4–52 ha) forest plots spanning a broad climatic range over five continents to characterize how aboveground biomass, woody productivity, and woody mortality vary with tree diameter. We examined how the median, dispersion, and skewness of these size-related distributions vary with mean annual temperature and precipitation. •In warmer forests, aboveground biomass, woody productivity, and woody mortality were more broadly distributed with respect to tree size. In warmer and wetter forests, aboveground biomass and woody productivity were more right skewed, with a long tail towards large trees. Small trees (1–10 cm diameter) contributed more to productivity and mortality than to biomass, highlighting the importance of including these trees in analyses of forest dynamics. •Our findings provide an improved characterization of climate-driven forest differences in the size structure of aboveground biomass and dynamics of that biomass, as well as refined benchmarks for capturing climate influences in vegetation demographic models

    A many-analysts approach to the relation between religiosity and well-being

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    The relation between religiosity and well-being is one of the most researched topics in the psychology of religion, yet the directionality and robustness of the effect remains debated. Here, we adopted a many-analysts approach to assess the robustness of this relation based on a new cross-cultural dataset (N=10,535 participants from 24 countries). We recruited 120 analysis teams to investigate (1) whether religious people self-report higher well-being, and (2) whether the relation between religiosity and self-reported well-being depends on perceived cultural norms of religion (i.e., whether it is considered normal and desirable to be religious in a given country). In a two-stage procedure, the teams first created an analysis plan and then executed their planned analysis on the data. For the first research question, all but 3 teams reported positive effect sizes with credible/confidence intervals excluding zero (median reported β=0.120). For the second research question, this was the case for 65% of the teams (median reported β=0.039). While most teams applied (multilevel) linear regression models, there was considerable variability in the choice of items used to construct the independent variables, the dependent variable, and the included covariates

    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)