484 research outputs found

    A 2-pyridone-amide inhibitor targets the glucose metabolism pathway of Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    UnlabelledIn a screen for compounds that inhibit infectivity of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, we identified the 2-pyridone amide KSK120. A fluorescent KSK120 analogue was synthesized and observed to be associated with the C. trachomatis surface, suggesting that its target is bacterial. We isolated KSK120-resistant strains and determined that several resistance mutations are in genes that affect the uptake and use of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6P). Consistent with an effect on G-6P metabolism, treatment with KSK120 blocked glycogen accumulation. Interestingly, KSK120 did not affect Escherichia coli or the host cell. Thus, 2-pyridone amides may represent a class of drugs that can specifically inhibit C. trachomatis infection.ImportanceChlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial pathogen of humans that causes a common sexually transmitted disease as well as eye infections. It grows only inside cells of its host organism, within a parasitophorous vacuole termed the inclusion. Little is known, however, about what bacterial components and processes are important for C. trachomatis cellular infectivity. Here, by using a visual screen for compounds that affect bacterial distribution within the chlamydial inclusion, we identified the inhibitor KSK120. As hypothesized, the altered bacterial distribution induced by KSK120 correlated with a block in C. trachomatis infectivity. Our data suggest that the compound targets the glucose-6-phosphate (G-6P) metabolism pathway of C. trachomatis, supporting previous indications that G-6P metabolism is critical for C. trachomatis infectivity. Thus, KSK120 may be a useful tool to study chlamydial glucose metabolism and has the potential to be used in the treatment of C. trachomatis infections

    Prescription and Other Medication Use in Pregnancy

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    OBJECTIVE: To characterize prescription and other medication use in a geographically and ethnically diverse cohort of women in their first pregnancy. METHODS: In a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of nulliparous women followed through pregnancy from the first trimester, medication use was chronicled longitudinally throughout pregnancy. Structured questions and aids were used to capture all medications taken as well as reasons they were taken. Total counts of all medications taken including number in each category and class were captured. Additionally, reasons the medications were taken were recorded. Trends in medications taken across pregnancy and in the first trimester were determined. RESULTS: Of the 9,546 study participants, 9,272 (97.1%) women took at least one medication during pregnancy with 9,139 (95.7%) taking a medication in the first trimester. Polypharmacy, defined as taking at least five medications, occurred in 2,915 (30.5%) women. Excluding vitamins, supplements, and vaccines, 73.4% of women took a medication during pregnancy with 55.1% taking one in the first trimester. The categories of drugs taken in pregnancy and in the first trimester include the following: gastrointestinal or antiemetic agents (34.3%, 19.5%), antibiotics (25.5%, 12.6%), and analgesics (23.7%, 15.6%, which includes 3.6%; 1.4% taking an opioid pain medication). CONCLUSION: In this geographically and ethnically diverse cohort of nulliparous pregnant women, medication use was nearly universal and polypharmacy was common

    Multicolour correlative imaging using phosphor probes

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    Correlative light and electron microscopy exploits the advantages of optical methods, such as multicolour probes and their use in hydrated live biological samples, to locate functional units, which are then correlated with structural details that can be revealed by the superior resolution of electron microscopes. One difficulty is locating the area imaged by the electron beam in the much larger optical field of view. Multifunctional probes that can be imaged in both modalities and thus register the two images are required. Phosphor materials give cathodoluminescence (CL) optical emissions under electron excitation. Lanthanum phosphate containing thulium or terbium or europium emits narrow bands in the blue, green and red regions of the CL spectrum; they may be synthesised with very uniform-sized crystals in the 10- to 50-nm range. Such crystals can be imaged by CL in the electron microscope, at resolutions limited by the particle size, and with colour discrimination to identify different probes. These materials also give emissions in the optical microscope, by multiphoton excitation. They have been deposited on the surface of glioblastoma cells and imaged by CL. Gadolinium oxysulphide doped with terbium emits green photons by either ultraviolet or electron excitation. Sixty-nanometre crystals of this phosphor have been imaged in the atmospheric scanning electron microscope (JEOL ClairScope). This probe and microscope combination allow correlative imaging in hydrated samples. Phosphor probes should prove to be very useful in correlative light and electron microscopy, as fiducial markers to assist in image registration, and in high/super resolution imaging studies

    The controversy in the management of the N0 neck for squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus

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    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the maxillary sinus is a relatively rare disease. As the reported incidence of regional metastasis varies widely, controversy exists as to whether or not the N0 classified neck should be treated electively. In this review, the data from published series are analyzed to decide on a recommendation of elective treatment of the neck in maxillary SCC. The published series consist of heterogeneous populations of different subsites of the paranasal sinuses, different histological types, different staging and treatment modalities used and different ways of reporting the results. These factors do not allow for recommendations based on high levels of evidence. Given this fact, the relatively high incidence rate of regional metastasis at presentation or in follow-up in the untreated N0 neck, and the relatively low toxicity of elective neck irradiation, such irradiation in SCC of the maxillary sinus should be considered

    Low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preterm delivery in nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy (ASPIRIN): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth remains a common cause of neonatal mortality, with a disproportionately high burden in low-income and middle-income countries. Meta-analyses of low-dose aspirin to prevent pre-eclampsia suggest that the incidence of preterm birth might also be decreased, particularly if initiated before 16 weeks of gestation. METHODS: ASPIRIN was a randomised, multicountry, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin (81 mg daily) initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of pregnancy, and 13 weeks and 6 days of pregnancy, in nulliparous women with an ultrasound confirming gestational age and a singleton viable pregnancy. Participants were enrolled at seven community sites in six countries (two sites in India and one site each in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by site) to receive aspirin or placebo tablets of identical appearance, via a sequence generated centrally by the data coordinating centre at Research Triangle Institute International (Research Triangle Park, NC, USA). Treatment was masked to research staff, health providers, and patients, and continued until 36 weeks and 7 days of gestation or delivery. The primary outcome of incidence of preterm birth, defined as the number of deliveries before 37 weeks\u27 gestational age, was analysed in randomly assigned women with pregnancy outcomes at or after 20 weeks, according to a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) protocol. Analyses of our binary primary outcome involved a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test stratified by site, and generalised linear models to obtain relative risk (RR) estimates and associated confidence intervals. Serious adverse events were assessed in all women who received at least one dose of drug or placebo. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02409680, and the Clinical Trial Registry-India, CTRI/2016/05/006970. FINDINGS: From March 23, 2016 to June 30, 2018, 14‚Äą361 women were screened for inclusion and 11‚Äą976 women aged 14-40 years were randomly assigned to receive low-dose aspirin (5990 women) or placebo (5986 women). 5780 women in the aspirin group and 5764 in the placebo group were evaluable for the primary outcome. Preterm birth before 37 weeks occurred in 668 (11¬∑6%) of the women who took aspirin and 754 (13¬∑1%) of those who took placebo (RR 0¬∑89 [95% CI 0¬∑81 to 0¬∑98], p=0¬∑012). In women taking aspirin, we also observed significant reductions in perinatal mortality (0¬∑86 [0¬∑73-1¬∑00], p=0¬∑048), fetal loss (infant death after 16 weeks\u27 gestation and before 7 days post partum; 0¬∑86 [0¬∑74-1¬∑00], p=0¬∑039), early preterm delivery (\u3c34 \u3eweeks; 0¬∑75 [0¬∑61-0¬∑93], p=0¬∑039), and the incidence of women who delivered before 34 weeks with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0¬∑38 [0¬∑17-0¬∑85], p=0¬∑015). Other adverse maternal and neonatal events were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: In populations of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies from low-income and middle-income countries, low-dose aspirin initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of gestation and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation resulted in a reduced incidence of preterm delivery before 37 weeks, and reduced perinatal mortality. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    A comparison of taxon co-occurrence patterns for macro- and microorganisms

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    We examine co-occurrence patterns of microorganisms to evaluate community assembly ‚Äúrules.‚ÄĚ We use methods previously applied to macroorganisms, both to evaluate their applicability to microorganisms and to allow comparison of co-occurrence patterns observed in microorganisms to those found in macroorganisms. We use a null model analysis of 124 incidence matrices from microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae, and we compare these results to previously published findings from a meta-analysis of almost 100 macroorganism data sets. We show that assemblages of microorganisms demonstrate nonrandom patterns of co-occurrence that are broadly similar to those found in assemblages of macroorganisms. These results suggest that some taxon co-occurrence patterns may be general characteristics of communities of organisms from all domains of life. We also find that co-occurrence in microbial communities does not vary among taxonomic groups or habitat types. However, we find that the degree of co-occurrence does vary among studies that use different methods to survey microbial communities. Finally, we discuss the potential effects of the undersampling of microbial communities on our results, as well as processes that may contribute to nonrandom patterns of co-occurrence in both macrobial and microbial communities such as competition, habitat filtering, historical effects, and neutral processes

    Immunochip analysis identifies multiple susceptibility loci for systemic sclerosis

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    In this study, 1,833 systemic sclerosis (SSc) cases and 3,466 controls were genotyped with the Immunochip array. Classical alleles, amino acid residues, and SNPs across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were imputed and tested. These analyses resulted in a model composed of six polymorphic amino acid positions and seven SNPs that explained the observed significant associations in the region. In addition, a replication step comprising 4,017 SSc cases and 5,935 controls was carried out for several selected non-HLA variants, reaching a total of 5,850 cases and 9,401 controls of European ancestry. Following this strategy, we identified and validated three SSc risk loci, including DNASE1L3 at 3p14, the SCHIP1-IL12A locus at 3q25, and ATG5 at 6q21, as well as a suggested association of the TREH-DDX6 locus at 11q23. The associations of several previously reported SSc risk loci were validated and further refined, and the observed peak of association in PXK was related to DNASE1L3. Our study has increased the number of known genetic associations with SSc, provided further insight into the pleiotropic effects of shared autoimmune risk factors, and highlighted the power of dense mapping for detecting previously overlooked susceptibility loci

    A description of the methods of the aspirin supplementation for pregnancy indicated risk reduction in nulliparas (ASPIRIN) study

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    Background: Preterm birth (PTB) remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality and long term disability throughout the world. Though complex in its origins, a growing body of evidence suggests that first trimester administration of low dose aspirin (LDA) may substantially reduce the rate of PTB.Methods: Hypothesis: LDA initiated in the first trimester reduces the risk of preterm birth. Study Design Type: Prospective randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded multi-national clinical trial conducted in seven low and middle income countries. Trial will be individually randomized with one-to-one ratio (intervention/control) Population: Nulliparous women between the ages of 14 and 40, with a singleton pregnancy between 6 0/7 weeks and 13 6/7 weeks gestational age (GA) confirmed by ultrasound prior to enrollment, no more than two previous first trimester pregnancy losses, and no contraindications to aspirin.Intervention: Daily administration of low dose (81 mg) aspirin, initiated between 6 0/7 weeks and 13 6/7 weeks GA and continued to 36 0/7 weeks GA, compared to an identical appearing placebo. Compliance and outcomes will be assessed biweekly.Outcomes: Primary outcome: Incidence of PTB (birth prior to 37 0/7 weeks GA). Secondary outcomes Incidence of preeclampsia/eclampsia, small for gestational age and perinatal mortality.Discussion: This study is unique as it will examine the impact of LDA early in pregnancy in low-middle income countries with preterm birth as a primary outcome. The importance of developing low-cost, high impact interventions in low-middle income countries is magnified as they are often unable to bear the financial costs of treating illness
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