17,558 research outputs found

    Clinicians' experiences of using the MCA (2005) with people with intellectual disabilities

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    Section A is a narrative synthesis of the empirical literature of professionals’ knowledge of the MCA and how they apply it when working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Eleven papers were identified for inclusion in this review. Four themes, with subthemes, were identified: ‘processes involved’, ‘working with complexity’, ‘knowledge gaps and variability’ and ‘assessor needs’. Methodological strengths and weaknesses are also considered. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical implications and recommendations for future research are outlined. Section B is an empirical study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the experiences of clinicians using the MCA (2005) with people with ID to assess capacity to consent to sex. Eight clinicians, who had completed between 2 and 40-50 (mode=2) MCA assessments regarding consent to sex. Three superordinate themes, with subthemes, are outlined and discussed in relation to the existing literature. Limitations, clinical implications and areas of future research are considered

    Closed form summation of C-finite sequences

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    We consider sums of the form ∑j=0n−1F1(a1n+b1j+c1)F2(a2n+b2j+c2)...Fk(akn+bkj+ck),\sum_{j=0}^{n-1}F_1(a_1n+b_1j+c_1)F_2(a_2n+b_2j+c_2)... F_k(a_kn+b_kj+c_k), in which each {Fi(n)}\{F_i(n)\} is a sequence that satisfies a linear recurrence of degree D(i)<∞D(i)<\infty, with constant coefficients. We assume further that the aia_i's and the ai+bia_i+b_i's are all nonnegative integers. We prove that such a sum always has a closed form, in the sense that it evaluates to a linear combination of a finite set of monomials in the values of the sequences {Fi(n)}\{F_i(n)\} with coefficients that are polynomials in nn. We explicitly describe two different sets of monomials that will form such a linear combination, and give an algorithm for finding these closed forms, thereby completely automating the solution of this class of summation problems. We exhibit tools for determining when these explicit evaluations are unique of their type, and prove that in a number of interesting cases they are indeed unique. We also discuss some special features of the case of ``indefinite summation," in which a1=a2=...=ak=0a_1=a_2=... = a_k = 0

    Uranium and Associated Heavy Metals in Ovis aries in a Mining Impacted Area in Northwestern New Mexico.

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    The objective of this study was to determine uranium (U) and other heavy metal (HM) concentrations (As, Cd, Pb, Mo, and Se) in tissue samples collected from sheep (Ovis aries), the primary meat staple on the Navajo reservation in northwestern New Mexico. The study setting was a prime target of U mining, where more than 1100 unreclaimed abandoned U mines and structures remain. The forage and water sources for the sheep in this study were located within 3.2 km of abandoned U mines and structures. Tissue samples from sheep (n = 3), their local forage grasses (n = 24), soil (n = 24), and drinking water (n = 14) sources were collected. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Results: In general, HMs concentrated more in the roots of forage compared to the above ground parts. The sheep forage samples fell below the National Research Council maximum tolerable concentration (5 mg/kg). The bioaccumulation factor ratio was &gt;1 in several forage samples, ranging from 1.12 to 16.86 for Mo, Cd, and Se. The study findings showed that the concentrations of HMs were greatest in the liver and kidneys. Of the calculated human intake, Se Reference Dietary Intake and Mo Recommended Dietary Allowance were exceeded, but the tolerable upper limits for both were not exceeded. Food intake recommendations informed by research are needed for individuals especially those that may be more sensitive to HMs. Further study with larger sample sizes is needed to explore other impacted communities across the reservation
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