1,827 research outputs found

    Promoting teacher–learner autonomy through and beyond initial language teacher education

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    With the growing international market for pre-experience MA in ELT/TESOL programmes, a key curriculum design issue is how to help students develop as learners of teaching through and beyond their formal academic studies. We report here on our attempts at the University of Warwick to address this issue, and consider wider implications for research and practice in initial language teacher education. At the Centre for Applied Linguistics at the University of Warwick, we run a suite of MA programmes for English language teaching professionals from around the world. Most of these courses are for students with prior teaching experience, but our MA in English Language Studies and Methods (ELSM) programme is designed for students with less than two years’ experience and, in fact, the majority enrol straight after completing their undergraduate studies in their home countries

    Geoids in General Relativity: Geoid Quasilocal Frames

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    We develop, in the context of general relativity, the notion of a geoid -- a surface of constant "gravitational potential". In particular, we show how this idea naturally emerges as a specific choice of a previously proposed, more general and operationally useful construction called a quasilocal frame -- that is, a choice of a two-parameter family of timelike worldlines comprising the worldtube boundary of the history of a finite spatial volume. We study the geometric properties of these geoid quasilocal frames, and construct solutions for them in some simple spacetimes. We then compare these results -- focusing on the computationally tractable scenario of a non-rotating body with a quadrupole perturbation -- against their counterparts in Newtonian gravity (the setting for current applications of the geoid), and we compute general-relativistic corrections to some measurable geometric quantities.Comment: 24 pages, 8 figures; v2: reference added; v3: introduction clarified, reference adde

    Escape path complexity and its context dependency in Pacific blue-eyes (Pseudomugil signifer)

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    The escape trajectories animals take following a predatory attack appear to show high degrees of apparent 'randomness' - a property that has been described as 'protean behaviour'. Here we present a method of quantifying the escape trajectories of individual animals using a path complexity approach. When fish (Pseudomugil signifer) were attacked either on their own or in groups, we find that an individual's path rapidly increases in entropy (our measure of complexity) following the attack. For individuals on their own, this entropy remains elevated (indicating a more random path) for a sustained period (10 seconds) after the attack, whilst it falls more quickly for individuals in groups. The entropy of the path is context dependent. When attacks towards single fish come from greater distances, a fish's path shows less complexity compared to attacks that come from short range. This context dependency effect did not exist, however, when individuals were in groups. Nor did the path complexity of individuals in groups depend on a fish's local density of neighbours. We separate out the components of speed and direction changes to determine which of these components contributes to the overall increase in path complexity following an attack. We found that both speed and direction measures contribute similarly to an individual's path's complexity in absolute terms. Our work highlights the adaptive behavioural tactics that animals use to avoid predators and also provides a novel method for quantifying the escape trajectories of animals.Comment: 9 page

    The Cash Seller Under the Uniform Commercial Code

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