1,872 research outputs found

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    International audienceAbstract Trees structure the Earth‚Äôs most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm across 1,568 locations 1‚Äď6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth‚Äôs 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories 7 , we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world‚Äôs most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    Trees structure the Earth‚Äôs most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm across 1,568 locations1,2,3,4,5,6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth‚Äôs 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories7, we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world‚Äôs most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Vaccination with Formulation of Nanoparticles Loaded with <i>Leishmania amazonensis</i> Antigens Confers Protection against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamster

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    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease caused by the protozoa Leishmania infantum for which dogs are the main reservoirs. A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) could be an important tool in the control of human and CVL by reducing the infection pressure of L. infantum. Despite the CVL vaccine available on the market, the Brazilian Ministry of Health did not implement the use of it in their control programs. In this sense, there is an urgent need to develop more efficient vaccines. In this study, the association between two polymeric nanoformulations, (poly (D, L-lactic) acid (PLA) polymer) loading Leishmania amazonensis antigens, was evaluated as a potential immunobiological agent against VL using golden hamsters as an experimental model. The results indicated that no significant adverse reactions were observed in animals vaccinated with LAPSmP. LAPSmP presented similar levels of total anti-Leishmania IgG as compared to LAPSmG. The LAPSmP and LAPSmG groups showed an intense reduction in liver and spleen parasitic load by qPCR. The LAPSmP and LAPSmG vaccines showed exceptional results, indicating that they may be promising candidates as a VL vaccine

    As contribui√ß√Ķes do processo de ensino e aprendizagem de m√ļsica para a forma√ß√£o dos Jovens dos Assentamentos Tiracanga e Todos Os Santos ‚Äď Canind√©-CE

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    O trabalho em quest√£o relata a experi√™ncia vivenciada atrav√©s da elabora√ß√£o e execu√ß√£o de um projeto de pesquisa realizado nos Assentamentos Tiracanga e Todos os Santos, localizados na zona rural do Munic√≠pio de Canind√© ‚Äď Cear√° e trabalhado com camponeses que residem nessas comunidades. Tem como tema: As Contribui√ß√Ķes do Processo de Ensino e Aprendizagem de M√ļsica para a Forma√ß√£o dos Jovens dos Assentamentos Tiracanga e Todos Os Santos. O objetivo da pesquisa √© analisar quais as contribui√ß√Ķes que o processo de ensino e aprendizagem em m√ļsica deixou para a forma√ß√£o dos jovens das comunidades pesquisadas. O aporte te√≥rico da pesquisa baseia-se nos escritos de Gimonet (1999), Mateiro e Ilari (2012) Medeiros (2011), Camacho (2011) e Bastian (2009). A abordagem do estudo √© a qualitativa, a metodologia utilizada para a coleta de dados foram o levantamento bibliogr√°fico, pesquisas de campo e entrevistas. Concluiu-se que as oficinas de m√ļsica possibilitaram al√©m do aprendizado de um instrumento musical e as habilidades t√©cnicas, uma valoriza√ß√£o e a integra√ß√£o das gera√ß√Ķes, e que o processo de ensino e aprendizagem em m√ļsica pode ajudar na aquisi√ß√£o de valores como sensibilidade, responsabilidade, disciplina e senso cr√≠tico que contribuir√£o para a melhoria do futuro dos jovens

    Mapping density, diversity and species-richness of the Amazon tree flora

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    Using 2.046 botanically-inventoried tree plots across the largest tropical forest on Earth, we mapped tree species-diversity and tree species-richness at 0.1-degree resolution, and investigated drivers for diversity and richness. Using only location, stratified by forest type, as predictor, our spatial model, to the best of our knowledge, provides the most accurate map of tree diversity in Amazonia to date, explaining approximately 70% of the tree diversity and species-richness. Large soil-forest combinations determine a significant percentage of the variation in tree species-richness and tree alpha-diversity in Amazonian forest-plots. We suggest that the size and fragmentation of these systems drive their large-scale diversity patterns and hence local diversity. A model not using location but cumulative water deficit, tree density, and temperature seasonality explains 47% of the tree species-richness in the terra-firme forest in Amazonia. Over large areas across Amazonia, residuals of this relationship are small and poorly spatially structured, suggesting that much of the residual variation may be local. The Guyana Shield area has consistently negative residuals, showing that this area has lower tree species-richness than expected by our models. We provide extensive plot meta-data, including tree density, tree alpha-diversity and tree species-richness results and gridded maps at 0.1-degree resolution

    Efficiency of Vinasse Application on Root-Knot Nematodes in Soybean

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    Vinasse is not only effectively used in pest control but also creates a conducive environment for the growth of antagonistic microorganisms. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of vinasse applied via soil for the management of root-knot nematodes in soybean culture. The experimental design was entirely random, in a factorial scheme (2 √ó 6), consisting of two species of nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, under vinasse application at five concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) and one control (water), with five repetitions. Soybean plants Intacta cv. M-Soy 8644 IPRO were inoculated with 4000 eggs/juveniles of each species separately. At 60 days after the first application of vinasse, evaluations of parasitism and agronomic characteristics in soybean were performed. Stillage resulted in the highest average values for root volume and root fresh mass in plants inoculated with M. incognita, showing respective increases of 24.33% and 14.92% compared to plants inoculated with M. javanica. However, concentrations exceeding 60% had a detrimental effect on all agronomic variables of soybean. For parasitism, an interaction among the factors was observed, with a significant effect (p < 0.01) for most of the evaluated variables, except for the number of eggs in the soil. The concentration equivalent to 60% vinasse promoted a sharp reduction in parasitism for the two nematode species, making reproduction on plant roots unfeasible

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear un derstanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5‚Äď7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8‚Äď11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world‚Äôs most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepre sented in biodiversity databases.13‚Äď15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may elim inate pieces of the Amazon‚Äôs biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological com munities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple or ganism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region‚Äôs vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most ne glected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lostinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Mapping density, diversity and species-richness of the Amazon tree flora

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    Using 2.046 botanically-inventoried tree plots across the largest tropical forest on Earth, we mapped tree species-diversity and tree species-richness at 0.1-degree resolution, and investigated drivers for diversity and richness. Using only location, stratified by forest type, as predictor, our spatial model, to the best of our knowledge, provides the most accurate map of tree diversity in Amazonia to date, explaining approximately 70% of the tree diversity and species-richness. Large soil-forest combinations determine a significant percentage of the variation in tree species-richness and tree alpha-diversity in Amazonian forest-plots. We suggest that the size and fragmentation of these systems drive their large-scale diversity patterns and hence local diversity. A model not using location but cumulative water deficit, tree density, and temperature seasonality explains 47% of the tree species-richness in the terra-firme forest in Amazonia. Over large areas across Amazonia, residuals of this relationship are small and poorly spatially structured, suggesting that much of the residual variation may be local. The Guyana Shield area has consistently negative residuals, showing that this area has lower tree species-richness than expected by our models. We provide extensive plot meta-data, including tree density, tree alpha-diversity and tree species-richness results and gridded maps at 0.1-degree resolution

    Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce anastomotic leak following right colectomy (EAGLE): pragmatic, batched stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial in 64 countries