2,162 research outputs found

    Seasonal Variation in 25(OH)D at Aberdeen (57°N) and Bone Health Indicators- Could Holidays in the Sun and Cod Liver Oil Supplements Alleviate Deficiency?

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    Vitamin D has been linked with many health outcomes. The aim of this longitudinal study, was to assess predictors of seasonal variation of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) (including use of supplements and holidays in sunny destinations) at a northerly latitude in the UK (57°N) in relation to bone health indicators. 365 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 62.0 y (SD 1.4)) had 25(OH)D measurements by immunoassay, serum C-telopeptide (CTX), estimates of sunlight exposure (badges of polysulphone film), information regarding holidays in sunny destinations, and diet (from food diaries, including use of supplements such as cod liver oil (CLO)) at fixed 3-monthly intervals over 15 months (subject retention 88%) with an additional 25(OH)D assessment in spring 2008. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and dual hip was measured in autumn 2006 and spring 2007 (Lunar I-DXA). Deficiency prevalence (25(OH)

    Comparing trends in BMI and waist circumference

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    The nature of excess body weight may be changing over time to one of greater central adiposity. The aim of this study is to determine whether BMI and waist circumference (WC) are increasing proportionately among population subgroups and the range of bodyweight, and to examine the public health implications of the findings. Our data are from two cross-sectional surveys (the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Studies (NHANES) in 1988-1994 (NHANES III) and 2005-2006), from which we have used samples of 15,349 and 4,176 participants aged ≥20 years. Between 1988-1994 and 2005-2006 BMI increased by an average of 1.8kg/m2 and WC by 4.7cm (adjusted for sex, age, race-ethnicity, and education). The increase in WC was more than could be attributed simply to increases in BMI. This independent increase in WC (of on average, 0.9cm) was consistent across the different BMI categories, sexes, education levels, and race-ethnicity groups. It occurred in younger but not older age groups. Overall in each BMI category, the prevalence of low-risk WC decreased and the prevalence of increased-risk or substantially increased-risk WC increased. These results suggest that the adverse health consequences associated with obesity may be increasingly underestimated by trends in BMI alone. Since WC is closely linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, it is important to know the prevailing trends in both of these parameters

    An ICP-MS, ESI-MS and molecular modelling investigation of homogeneous gallium affinity tagging (HMAT) of phosphopeptides

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    Protein phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation, provide one of the most common signalling pathways within cells, being involved in regulating cellular processes, mediating enzyme inhibition, protein-protein recognition and protein degradation. Compared with normal proteomics, phosphoproteomics poses some additional challenges requiring more initial separation and additional sensitivity to detect and quantify potentially ultra-low abundance species. In this work, the selective detection of phosphopeptides is described based on the incorporation of a metal tag, gallium-N,N-biscarboxymethyl lysine (Ga-LysNTA), in solution before separation and detection by liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). Experimental and theoretical characterisation of the resulting Ga-phosphopeptide complex is presented based on linear ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-MS) and molecular modelling data. Linear ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed to study the interaction of the gallium tag with platelet derived growth factor beta receptor (β-PDGF), a small phosphopeptide. In addition high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-MS) was used for accurate mass determination and multistage tandem mass spectrometry of the gallium-β-PDGF complex identified the fragmentation pathway. Finally, molecular modelling was used to investigate the energetically favoured structures of both the Ga-LysNTA material and the β-PDGF-Ga-LysNTA complex

    A high anticholinergic burden is associated with a history of falls in the previous year in middle-aged women:findings from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study

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    APOSS was funded by the Grampian Osteoporosis Trust. A.D.A. received an Aberdeen Summer Research Scholarship supported by the funding from the Grampian Osteoporosis Trust Charity. The funder has no role in design, analysis, interpretation and reporting of the work presented. We gratefully acknowledge the Steering Committee of APOSS for permission to conduct this research.Peer reviewedPostprin

    Differences in maternal and early child nutritional status by offspring sex in lowland Nepal.

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    OBJECTIVE: On average, boys grow faster than girls in early life but appear more susceptible to undernutrition. We investigated sex differences in early child growth, and whether maternal nutritional status and diet differed by offspring sex during and after pregnancy in an undernourished population. METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data from a cluster-randomized trial from plains Nepal, stratifying results by child or gestational age. Children's outcomes (0-20 months) were weight, length, and head circumference and their z-scores relative to WHO reference data in 2-monthly intervals (n range: 24837 to 25 946). Maternal outcomes were mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy (12-40 weeks) (n = 5550 and n = 5519) and postpartum (n = 15 710 and n = 15 356), and diet in pregnancy. We fitted unadjusted and adjusted mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models comparing boys with girls. RESULTS: Boys were larger than girls, however relative to their sex-specific reference they had lower length and head circumference z-scores from birth to 12 months, but higher weight-for-length z-scores from 0 to 6 months. Mothers of sons had higher MUAC and BMI around 36 weeks gestation but no other differences in pregnancy diets or pregnancy/postpartum maternal anthropometry were detected. Larger sex differences in children's size in the food supplementation study arm suggest that food restriction in pregnancy may limit fetal growth of boys more than girls. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, mothers' anthropometry and dietary intake do not differ according to offspring sex. As boys are consistently larger, we expect that poor maternal nutritional status may compromise their growth more than girls. Copyright © 2021 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

    Anticholinergic burden in middle-aged women and recurrent falls in later life : findings from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS)

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND FUNDING The Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS) was funded by the Grampian Osteoporosis Trust. SRN received an Aberdeen Summer Research Scholarship supported by funding from the Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, UK. The funder had no role in design, analysis, interpretation or reporting of the work presented. We gratefully acknowledge the Steering Committee of APOSS for their permission to conduct this research.Peer reviewedPublisher PD