1,717 research outputs found

    Judging Schools: Courts and the Structures of American Education

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    People v. the Court: School Finance Reform and the New Jersey Supreme Court

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    Enhancement of the Frequency of Tumor-associated Macrophages Capable of in Vitro Proliferation by Colony-stimulating Factors and Heterologous Erythroc

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    Limiting dilution analysis was used to analyze the effects of colony-stimulating factors on the in vitro proliferation of tumor-associated mac~ophages and resident peritoneal macrophages. Specifically, _macrophage colonystimulating factor and granulocyte/macrophage colony- ' ' stimulating factor were examined as both crude natural and recombinant forms for enhancement of proliferative responses of these two populations. Sheep erythrocytes were also assayed for their ability to stimulate proliferation. Analysis of data showed little significant difference between proliferation of resident peritoneal macrophages and tumor~ associated macrophages with the factors that were assayed. Further analysis of supernate isolated from cultured tumor cells indicated the production of colony-stimulating factors by the tumors. This suggests that some tumors may stimulate macrophage proliferation.Microbiolog

    S100A6 preferentially labels type C nevus cells and nevic corpuscles: additional support for Schwannian differentiation of intradermal nevi

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    Melanocytic nevi typically show a morphologic sequence of maturation from epithelioid “type A” cells to fusiform, Schwann cell-like “type C” cells with dermal descent. Nevi may also produce Wagner-Meissner-like structures (nevic corpuscles). Previous studies have shown that this maturation of intradermal nevi recapitulates intermediate stages in Schwann cell development. In intradermal nevi, we have evaluated the pattern of S100A6 protein, a form of S100 found in Schwann cells. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for S100A6 and S100B in 38 intradermal nevi (IDN). Ten neurofibromas (NF), 3 Schwannomas (SCH), 2 palisaded and encapsulated neuromas (PEN), and 2 granular cell tumors (GCT) were included as positive controls since these lesions have large numbers of Schwann cells. Results: Melanocytic nevi demonstrated preferential anti-S100A6 staining of “type C” cells (36/38; 28 strong, 8 weak) and nevic corpuscles (25/38; 19 strong, 6 weak) compared to “type A” cells (17/38; 17 weak) and “type B” cells (17/38; 4 strong, 13 weak). All NF, SCH, and PEN stained strongly with anti-S100A6. Both GCT were negative with anti-S100A6 but positive with anti-S100B. Conclusions: The pattern of S100A6 expression in intradermal nevi further supports the hypothesis that maturation in these lesions recapitulates features of Schwann cell differentiation. The lack of S100A6 expression by both GCT suggests that these lesions have lost this feature of Schwann cells, which may play a role in their peculiar phenotypic appearance.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/75660/1/j.1600-0560.2001.028008393.x.pd

    Localized Endomorphisms of the Chiral Ising Model

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    Based on the treatment of the chiral Ising model by Mack and Schomerus, we present examples of localized endomorphisms ϱ1loc\varrho_1^{\rm loc} and ϱ1/2loc\varrho_{1/2}^{\rm loc}. It is shown that they lead to the same superselection sectors as the global ones in the sense that unitary equivalence π0ϱ1locπ1\pi_0\circ\varrho_1^{\rm loc}\cong\pi_1 and π0ϱ1/2locπ1/2\pi_0\circ\varrho_{1/2}^{\rm loc}\cong\pi_{1/2} holds. Araki's formalism of the selfdual CAR algebra is used for the proof. We prove local normality and extend representations and localized endomorphisms to a global algebra of observables which is generated by local von Neumann algebras on the punctured circle. In this framework, we manifestly prove fusion rules and derive statistics operators.Comment: 41 pages, latex2

    The Classification of Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders in the ICD-11

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    Background To present the rationale for the new Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD) grouping in the Mental and Behavioural Disorders chapter of the Eleventh Revision of the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), including the conceptualization and essential features of disorders in this grouping. Methods Review of the recommendations of the ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification for OCRD. These sought to maximize clinical utility, global applicability, and scientific validity. Results The rationale for the grouping is based on common clinical features of included disorders including repetitive unwanted thoughts and associated behaviours, and is supported by emerging evidence from imaging, neurochemical, and genetic studies. The proposed grouping includes obsessive–compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, olfactory reference disorder, and hoarding disorder. Body-focused repetitive behaviour disorders, including trichotillomania and excoriation disorder are also included. Tourette disorder, a neurological disorder in ICD-11, and personality disorder with anankastic features, a personality disorder in ICD-11, are recommended for cross-referencing. Limitations Alternative nosological conceptualizations have been described in the literature and have some merit and empirical basis. Further work is needed to determine whether the proposed ICD-11 OCRD grouping and diagnostic guidelines are mostly likely to achieve the goals of maximizing clinical utility and global applicability. Conclusion It is anticipated that creation of an OCRD grouping will contribute to accurate identification and appropriate treatment of affected patients as well as research efforts aimed at improving our understanding of the prevalence, assessment, and management of its constituent disorders

    Quality management in heavy duty manufacturing industry: TQM vs. Six Sigma

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    ‘Is TQM a management fad?’ This question has been extensively documented in the quality management literature; and will be tackled in this research though a critical literature review on the area. ‘TQM versus Six-Sigma’ debate, which has also been a fundamental challenge in this research filed, is addressed by a thematic and chronological review on the peer papers. To evaluate this challenge in practice, a primary research in heavy duty machinery production industry have been conducted using a case-study on, J C Bamford Excavators Ltd (JCB), the largest European construction machinery producer. The result highlights that TQM is a natural foundation to build up Six-Sigma upon; and not surprisingly the quality yield in a TQM approach complemented by Six-sigma is far higher and more stable than when TQM with no Six-Sigma focus is being put in place; thus presenting the overall finding that TQM and Six Sigma are compliments, not substitutes. The study will be concluded with an overview on quality management approaches in the heavy duty manufacturing industry to highlight the way forward for the industry

    Markovian Master Equations: A Critical Study

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    We derive Markovian master equations of single and interacting harmonic systems in different scenarios, including strong internal coupling. By comparing the dynamics resulting from the corresponding Markovian master equations with exact numerical simulations of the evolution of the global system, we precisely delimit their validity regimes and assess the robustness of the assumptions usually made in the process of deriving the reduced dynamics. The proposed method is sufficiently general to suggest that the conclusions made here are widely applicable to a large class of settings involving interacting chains subject to a weak interaction with an environment.Comment: 40 pages, 14 figures, final versio
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