83 research outputs found

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array Third Data Release

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    We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes ``Murriyang'' radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 years with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with ∼3\sim 3 years of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux-density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations, and compare this data release with our previous release.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in PAS

    Minimising Young Children's Anxiety through Schools (MY-CATS): statistical analysis plan for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an online parent-led intervention compared with usual school practice for young children identified as at risk for anxiety disorders

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    Background The Minimising Young Children’s Anxiety through Schools (MY-CATS) trial is being conducted to determine whether an online evidence-based parent-guided cognitive behavioural therapy intervention in addition to usual school practice is effective and cost-effective compared with usual school practice in reducing anxiety disorders in children aged 4–7 deemed ‘at risk’ of anxiety disorders. This update article describes the detailed statistical analysis plan for the MY-CATS trial and reports a review of the underpinning sample size assumptions. Methods and design The MY-CATS study is a two-arm, definitive superiority pragmatic parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial in which schools will be randomised 1:1 to receive either the intervention (in addition to usual school practice) or the usual school practice only. This update to the (published) protocol provides a detailed description of the study methods, the statistical principles, the trial population and the planned statistical analyses, including additional analyses comprising instrumental variable regression and mediation analysis

    Minimising young children’s anxiety through schools (MY-CATS): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an online parent-led intervention compared with usual school practice for young children identified as at risk for anxiety disorders

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    Background Identifying and supporting young children who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders would benefit children, families, and wider society. Elevated anxiety symptoms, inhibited temperament, and high parental anxiety are established risk factors for later anxiety disorders, but it remains unclear who is most likely to benefit from prevention and early intervention programmes. Delivering an online intervention through schools to parents of young children who have one or more of these risks could maximise reach. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of delivering an online parent-led intervention, compared with usual school provision only, for children (aged 4–7) identified as at risk for anxiety disorders on the basis of at least one risk factor. We also aim to identify the characteristics of children who do and do not benefit from intervention and mechanisms of change from the intervention. Methods The design will be a parallel group, superiority cluster randomised controlled trial, with schools (clusters) randomised to intervention or usual school practice arms in a 1:1 ratio stratified according to level of deprivation within the school. The study will recruit and randomise at least 60 primary/infant schools in England, and on the basis of recruiting 60 schools, we will recruit 1080 trial participants (540 per arm). Parents of all children (aged 4–7) in sampled Reception, Year 1, and Year 2 classes will be invited to complete screening questionnaires. Children who screen positive on the basis of anxiety symptoms, and/or behavioural inhibition, and/or parent anxiety symptoms will be eligible for the trial. Parents/carers of children in schools allocated to the intervention arm will be offered a brief online intervention; schools in both arms will continue to provide any usual support for children and parents throughout the trial. Assessments will be completed at screening, baseline (before randomisation), 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 12 months post-randomisation. The primary outcome will be the absence/presence of an anxiety disorder diagnosis at 12 months. Discussion The trial will determine if delivering an online intervention for parents of young children at risk of anxiety disorders identified through screening in schools is effective and cost-effective. Trial registration ISRCTN 82398107. Prospectively registered on Jan. 14, 2021

    Minimising Young Children’s Anxiety through Schools (MY-CATS): statistical analysis plan for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an online parent-led intervention compared with usual school practice for young children identified as at risk for anxiety disorders

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    Abstract Background The Minimising Young Children’s Anxiety through Schools (MY-CATS) trial is being conducted to determine whether an online evidence-based parent-guided cognitive behavioural therapy intervention in addition to usual school practice is effective and cost-effective compared with usual school practice in reducing anxiety disorders in children aged 4–7 deemed ‘at risk’ of anxiety disorders. This update article describes the detailed statistical analysis plan for the MY-CATS trial and reports a review of the underpinning sample size assumptions. Methods and design The MY-CATS study is a two-arm, definitive superiority pragmatic parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial in which schools will be randomised 1:1 to receive either the intervention (in addition to usual school practice) or the usual school practice only. This update to the (published) protocol provides a detailed description of the study methods, the statistical principles, the trial population and the planned statistical analyses, including additional analyses comprising instrumental variable regression and mediation analysis. Trial registration ISRCTN82398107 . Prospectively registered on 14 January 202

    Minimising Young Children’s Anxiety through Schools (MY-CATS): Statistical Analysis Plan for a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an online parent-led intervention compared with usual school practice for young children identified as at-risk for anxiety disorders

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    This is the author accepted manuscriptAvailability of data and materials: Datasets and study materials generated during the current study will be made available in a public repositoryBackground: The Minimising Young Children’s Anxiety through Schools (MY-CATS) trial is being conducted to determine whether an online evidence-based parent-guided Cognitive Behavioural Therapy intervention in addition to usual school practice is effective and cost-effective compared with usual school practice in reducing anxiety disorders in children aged 4-7 deemed ‘at risk’ of anxiety disorders. This update article describes the detailed statistical analysis plan for the MY-CATS trial and reports a review of the underpinning sample size assumptions. Methods and Design: The MY-CATS study is a two-arm, definitive superiority pragmatic parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial in which schools will be randomised 1:1 to receive either the intervention (in addition to usual school practice) or usual school practice only. This update to the (published) protocol provides a detailed description of the study methods, the statistical principles, the trial population and the planned statistical analyses, including additional analyses comprising instrumental variable regression and mediation analysis.Kavli TrustUKRINational Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR

    Designing a comprehensive behaviour change intervention to promote and monitor exclusive use of liquefied petroleum gas stoves for the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) trial

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    Introduction Increasing use of cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and abandonment of solid fuels is key to reducing household air pollution and realising potential health improvements in low-income countries. However, achieving exclusive LPG use in households unaccustomed to this type of fuel, used in combination with a new stove technology, requires substantial behaviour change. We conducted theory-grounded formative research to identify contextual factors influencing cooking fuel choice to guide the development of behavioural strategies for the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) trial. The HAPIN trial will assess the impact of exclusive LPG use on air pollution exposure and health of pregnant women, older adult women, and infants under 1 year of age in Guatemala, India, Peru, and Rwanda.Methods Using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation–Behaviour (COM–B) framework and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to guide formative research, we conducted in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, observations, key informant interviews and pilot studies to identify key influencers of cooking behaviours in the four countries. We used these findings to develop behavioural strategies likely to achieve exclusive LPG use in the HAPIN trial.Results We identified nine potential influencers of exclusive LPG use, including perceived disadvantages of solid fuels, family preferences, cookware, traditional foods, non-food-related cooking, heating needs, LPG awareness, safety and cost and availability of fuel. Mapping formative findings onto the theoretical frameworks, behavioural strategies for achieving exclusive LPG use in each research site included free fuel deliveries, locally acceptable stoves and equipment, hands-on training and printed materials and videos emphasising relevant messages. In the HAPIN trial, we will monitor and reinforce exclusive LPG use through temperature data loggers, LPG fuel delivery tracking, in-home observations and behavioural reinforcement visits.Conclusion Our formative research and behavioural strategies can inform the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of theory-informed strategies to promote exclusive LPG use in future stove programmes and research studies.Trial registration number NCT02944682, Pre-results

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project: second data release

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    AbstractWe describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of<\!\!1\,\mu\text{s}in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files

    Enabling adoption of 2D-NMR for the higher order structure assessment of monoclonal antibody therapeutics

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    The increased interest in using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as a platform for biopharmaceuticals has led to the need for new analytical techniques that can precisely assess physicochemical properties of these large and very complex drugs for the purpose of correctly identifying quality attributes (QA). One QA, higher order structure (HOS), is unique to biopharmaceuticals and essential for establishing consistency in biopharmaceutical manufacturing, detecting process-related variations from manufacturing changes and establishing comparability between biologic products. To address this measurement challenge, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) methods were introduced that allow for the precise atomic-level comparison of the HOS between two proteins, including mAbs. Here, an inter-laboratory comparison involving 26 industrial, government and academic laboratories worldwide was performed as a benchmark using the NISTmAb, from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to facilitate the translation of the 2D-NMR method into routine use for biopharmaceutical product development. Two-dimensional 1H,15N and 1H,13C NMR spectra were acquired with harmonized experimental protocols on the unlabeled Fab domain and a uniformly enriched-15N, 20%-13C-enriched system suitability sample derived from the NISTmAb. Chemometric analyses from over 400 spectral maps acquired on 39 different NMR spectrometers ranging from 500 MHz to 900 MHz demonstrate spectral fingerprints that are fit-for-purpose for the assessment of HOS. The 2D-NMR method is shown to provide the measurement reliability needed to move the technique from an emerging technology to a harmonized, routine measurement that can be generally applied with great confidence to high precision assessments of the HOS of mAb-based biotherapeutics
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