235 research outputs found

    Frontally Mediated Control Processes Contribute to Source Memory Retrieval

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    AbstractRemembering is a cognitively demanding task that requires the strategic selection of information from memory. In this issue of Neuron, Dobbins et al. present functional MRI (fMRI) data that shed insight into the specific, dissociated contributions of frontal regions to remembering

    The Potion's Magic

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    AbstractDuring remembering, a perception of the past is constructed that includes sensory details of the original episode. In this issue of Neuron, Gottfried and colleagues provide evidence for selective piriform activation during recognition of visual cues previously paired with scents. These data provide evidence of sensory-specific reactivation of olfactory cortex during remembering

    Functional-Anatomic Correlates of Individual Differences in Memory

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    SummaryMemory abilities differ greatly across individuals. To explore a source of these differences, we characterized the varied strategies people adopt during unconstrained encoding. Participants intentionally encoded object pairs during functional MRI. Principal components analysis applied to a strategy questionnaire revealed that participants variably used four main strategies to aid learning. Individuals' use of verbal elaboration and visual inspection strategies independently correlated with their memory performance. Verbal elaboration correlated with activity in a network of regions that included prefrontal regions associated with controlled verbal processing, while visual inspection correlated with activity in a network of regions that included an extrastriate region associated with object processing. Activity in regions associated with use of these strategies was also correlated with memory performance. This study reveals functional-anatomic correlates of verbal and perceptual strategies that are variably used by individuals during encoding. These strategies engage distinct brain regions and may separately influence memory performance

    Open access series of imaging studies: Longitudinal MRI data in nondemented and demented older adults

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    The Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) is a series of neuroimaging data sets that is publicly available for study and analysis. The present MRI data set consists of a longitudinal collection of 150 subjects aged 60 to 96 all acquired on the same scanner using identical sequences. Each subject was scanned on two or more visits, separated by at least one year for a total of 373 imaging sessions. Subjects were characterized using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) as either nondemented or with very mild to mild Alzheimer‘s disease (AD). 72 of the subjects were characterized as nondemented throughout the study. 64 of the included subjects were characterized as demented at the time of their initial visits and remained so for subsequent scans, including 51 individuals with CDR 0.5 similar level of impairment to individuals elsewhere considered to have ‘mild cognitive impairment’. Another 14 subjects were characterized as nondemented at the time of their initial visit (CDR 0) and were subsequently characterized as demented at a later visit (CDR > 0). The subjects were all right-handed and include both men (n=62) and women (n=88). For each scanning session, 3 or 4 individual T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained. Multiple within-session acquisitions provide extremely high contrast-to-noise making the data amenable to a wide range of analytic approaches including automated computational analysis. Automated calculation of whole brain volume is presented to demonstrate use of the data for measuring differences associated with normal aging and AD
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