648 research outputs found

    Novel vasocontractile role of the P2Y14receptor: characterization of its signalling in porcine isolated pancreatic arteries

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    Background and Purpose: The P2Y14 receptor is the newest member of the P2Y receptor family; it is Gi/o protein-coupled and is activated by UDP and selectively by UDP-glucose and MRS2690 (2-thiouridine-5′-diphosphoglucose) (7–10-fold more potent than UDP-glucose). This study investigated whether P2Y14 receptors were functionally expressed in porcine isolated pancreatic arteries. Experimental Approach: Pancreatic arteries were prepared for isometric tension recording and UDP-glucose, UDP and MRS2690 were applied cumulatively after preconstriction with U46619, a TxA2 mimetic. Levels of phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) were assessed with Western blotting. cAMP concentrations were assessed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay kit. Key Results: Concentration-dependent contractions with a rank order of potency of MRS2690 (10-fold) > UDP-glucose ≥ UDP were recorded. These contractions were reduced by PPTN {4-[4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenyl]-7-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-naphthoic acid}, a selective antagonist of P2Y14 receptors, which did not affect responses to UTP. Contraction to UDP-glucose was not affected by MRS2578, a P2Y6 receptor selective antagonist. Raising cAMP levels and forskolin, in the presence of U46619, enhanced contractions to UDP-glucose. In addition, UDP-glucose and MRS2690 inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels. Removal of the endothelium and inhibition of endothelium-derived contractile agents (TxA2, PGF2α and endothelin-1) inhibited contractions to UDP glucose. Y-27632, nifedipine and thapsigargin also reduced contractions to the agonists. UDP-glucose and MRS2690 increased MLC2 phosphorylation, which was blocked by PPTN. Conclusions and Implications: P2Y14 receptors play a novel vasocontractile role in porcine pancreatic arteries, mediating contraction via cAMP-dependent mechanisms, elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels, activation of RhoA/ROCK signalling and MLC2, along with release of TxA2, PGF2α and endothelin-1

    Possibilities of more efficient usage of genetic potential of broilers breeders

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    During the last ten years, poultry production in the world and particularly, EU has been specific due to new trends, whereby special attention is focused on regulations and procedures that are adopted by European Union (EU), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the World Trade Organization. Legal regulations in EU (standards, directions) are focused on all species and categories of poultry. Based on this, breeding of broiler (meat-type line strains) and production of hatching eggs and day old chickens (incubation) as well as other issues are the focus of this review. This paper presented results of studies carried out using different technological procedures in the breeding of broiler and production of one day old chickens. These showed a full expression of genetic potential of strains, along with preservation of poultry welfare

    The role of histidine residues in modulation of the rat P2X 2 purinoceptor by zinc and pH

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/65774/1/jphysiol.2001.013244.pd

    Primary and secondary agonists can use P2X1 receptors as a major pathway to increase intracellular Ca2+ in the human platelet

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    See also Nurden AT. Does ATP act through P2X1 receptors to regulate platelet activation and thrombus formation? This issue, pp 907–9

    P2X receptors: epithelial ion channels and regulators of salt and water transport.

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    When the results from electrophysiological studies of renal epithelial cells are combined with data from in vivo tubule microperfusion experiments and immunohistochemical surveys of the nephron, the accumulated evidence suggests that ATP-gated ion channels, P2X receptors, play a specialized role in the regulation of ion and water movement across the renal tubule and are integral to electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. In this short review, we discuss the concept of P2X receptors as regulators of salt and water salvage pathways, as well as acknowledging their accepted role as ATP-gated ion channels

    Biphasic effect of extracellular ATP on human and rat airways is due to multiple P2 purinoceptor activation

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    BACKGROUND: Extracellular ATP may modulate airway responsiveness. Studies on ATP-induced contraction and [Ca(2+)](i )signalling in airway smooth muscle are rather controversial and discrepancies exist regarding both ATP effects and signalling pathways. We compared the effect of extracellular ATP on rat trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi (EPB) and both human and rat intrapulmonary bronchi (IPB), and investigated the implicated signalling pathways. METHODS: Isometric contraction was measured on rat trachea, EPB and IPB isolated rings and human IPB isolated rings. [Ca(2+)](i )was monitored fluorimetrically using indo 1 in freshly isolated and cultured tracheal myocytes. Statistical comparisons were done with ANOVA or Student's t tests for quantitative variables and χ(2 )tests for qualitative variables. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In rat airways, extracellular ATP (10(-6)–10(-3 )M) induced an epithelium-independent and concentration-dependent contraction, which amplitude increased from trachea to IPB. The response was transient and returned to baseline within minutes. Similar responses were obtained with the non-hydrolysable ATP analogous ATP-γ-S. Successive stimulations at 15 min-intervals decreased the contractile response. In human IPB, the contraction was similar to that of rat IPB but the time needed for the return to baseline was longer. In isolated myocytes, ATP induced a concentration-dependent [Ca(2+)](i )response. The contractile response was not reduced by thapsigargin and RB2, a P2Y receptor inhibitor, except in rat and human IPB. By contrast, removal of external Ca(2+), external Na(+ )and treatment with D600 decreased the ATP-induced response. The contraction induced by α-β-methylene ATP, a P2X agonist, was similar to that induced by ATP, except in IPB where it was lower. Indomethacin and H-89, a PKA inhibitor, delayed the return to baseline in extrapulmonary airways. CONCLUSION: Extracellular ATP induces a transient contractile response in human and rat airways, mainly due to P2X receptors and extracellular Ca(2+ )influx in addition with, in IPB, P2Y receptors stimulation and Ca(2+ )release from intracellular Ca(2+ )stores. Extracellular Ca(2+ )influx occurs through L-type voltage-dependent channels activated by external Na(+ )entrance through P2X receptors. The transience of the response cannot be attributed to ATP degradation but to purinoceptor desensitization and, in extrapulmonary airways, prostaglandin-dependent PKA activation

    Immunogold electron microscopic evidence of in situ formation of homo- and heteromeric purinergic adenosine A1 and P2Y2 receptors in rat brain

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Purines such as adenosine and ATP are now generally recognized as the regulators of many physiological functions, such as neurotransmission, pain, cardiac function, and immune responses. Purines exert their functions via purinergic receptors, which are divided into adenosine and P2 receptors. Recently, we demonstrated that the G<sub>i/o</sub>-coupled adenosine A<sub>1 </sub>receptor (A<sub>1</sub>R) and G<sub>q/11</sub>-coupled P2Y<sub>2 </sub>receptor (P2Y<sub>2</sub>R) form a heteromeric complex with unique pharmacology in co-transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T). However, the heteromeric interaction of A<sub>1</sub>R and P2Y<sub>2</sub>R <it>in situ </it>in brain is still largely unknown.</p> <p>Findings</p> <p>In the present study, we visualized the surface expression and co-localization of A<sub>1</sub>R and P2Y<sub>2</sub>R in both transfected HEK293T cells and in rat brain by confocal microscopy and more precisely by immunogold electron microscopy. Immunogold electron microscopy showed the evidence for the existence of homo- and hetero-dimers among A<sub>1</sub>R and P2Y<sub>2</sub>R at the neurons in cortex, cerebellum, and particularly cerebellar Purkinje cells, also supported by co-immunoprecipitation study.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The results suggest that evidence for the existence of homo- and hetero-dimers of A<sub>1</sub>R and P2Y<sub>2</sub>R, not only in co-transfected cultured cells, but also <it>in situ </it>on the surface of neurons in various brain regions. While the homo-dimerization ratios displayed similar patterns in all three regions, the rates of hetero-dimerization were prominent in hippocampal pyramidal cells among the three regions.</p

    Raised tone reveals ATP as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in the porcine mesenteric arterial bed

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    The relative importance of ATP as a functional sympathetic neurotransmitter in blood vessels has been shown to be increased when the level of preexisting vascular tone or pressure is increased, in studies carried out in rat mesenteric arteries. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tone influences the involvement of ATP as a sympathetic cotransmitter with noradrenaline in another species. We used the porcine perfused mesenteric arterial bed and porcine mesenteric large, medium and small arteries mounted for isometric tension recording, because purinergic cotransmission can vary depending on the size of the blood vessel. In the perfused mesenteric bed at basal tone, sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses were abolished by prazosin, an α1- adrenoceptor antagonist, but there was no significant effect of α,β-methylene ATP, a P2X receptor-desensitizing agent. Submaximal precontraction of the mesenteric arterial bed with U46619, a thromboxane A2 mimetic, augmented the sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses; under these conditions, both α,β-methylene ATP and prazosin attenuated the neurogenic responses. In the mesenteric large, medium and small arteries, prazosin attenuated the sympathetic neurogenic contractile responses under conditions of both basal and U46619-raised tone. α,β-Methylene ATP was effective in all of these arteries only under conditions of U46619- induced tone, causing a similar inhibition in all arteries, but had no significant effect on sympathetic neurogenic contractions at basal tone. These data show thatATP is a cotransmitter with noradrenaline in porcine mesenteric arteries; the purinergic component was revealed under conditions of partial precontraction, which is more relevant to physiological conditions