4,024 research outputs found

    Evaluating the role of quantitative modeling in language evolution

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    Models are a flourishing and indispensable area of research in language evolution. Here we highlight critical issues in using and interpreting models, and suggest viable approaches. First, contrasting models can explain the same data and similar modelling techniques can lead to diverging conclusions. This should act as a reminder to use the extreme malleability of modelling parsimoniously when interpreting results. Second, quantitative techniques similar to those used in modelling language evolution have proven themselves inadequate in other disciplines. Cross-disciplinary fertilization is crucial to avoid mistakes which have previously occurred in other areas. Finally, experimental validation is necessary both to sharpen models' hypotheses, and to support their conclusions. Our belief is that models should be interpreted as quantitative demonstrations of logical possibilities, rather than as direct sources of evidence. Only an integration of theoretical principles, quantitative proofs and empirical validation can allow research in the evolution of language to progress

    Computational experience with a three-dimensional rotary engine combustion model

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    A new computer code was developed to analyze the chemically reactive flow and spray combustion processes occurring inside a stratified-charge rotary engine. Mathematical and numerical details of the new code were recently described by the present authors. The results are presented of limited, initial computational trials as a first step in a long-term assessment/validation process. The engine configuration studied was chosen to approximate existing rotary engine flow visualization and hot firing test rigs. Typical results include: (1) pressure and temperature histories, (2) torque generated by the nonuniform pressure distribution within the chamber, (3) energy release rates, and (4) various flow-related phenomena. These are discussed and compared with other predictions reported in the literature. The adequacy or need for improvement in the spray/combustion models and the need for incorporating an appropriate turbulence model are also discussed

    Security Policy Specification Using a Graphical Approach

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    A security policy states the acceptable actions of an information system, as the actions bear on security. There is a pressing need for organizations to declare their security policies, even informal statements would be better than the current practice. But, formal policy statements are preferable to support (1) reasoning about policies, e.g., for consistency and completeness, (2) automated enforcement of the policy, e.g., using wrappers around legacy systems or after the fact with an intrusion detection system, and (3) other formal manipulation of policies, e.g., the composition of policies. We present LaSCO, the Language for Security Constraints on Objects, in which a policy consists of two parts: the domain (assumptions about the system) and the requirement (what is allowed assuming the domain is satisfied). Thus policies defined in LaSCO have the appearance of conditional access control statements. LaSCO policies are specified as expressions in logic and as directed graphs, giving a visual view of policy. LaSCO has a simple semantics in first order logic (which we provide), thus permitting policies we write, even for complex policies, to be very perspicuous. LaSCO has syntax to express many of the situations we have found to be useful on policies or, more interesting, the composition of policies. LaSCO has an object-oriented structure, permitting it to be useful to describe policies on the objects and methods of an application written in an object-oriented language, in addition to the traditional policies on operating system objects. A LaSCO specification can be automatically translated into executable code that checks an invocation of a program with respect to a policy. The implementation of LaSCO is in Java, and generates wrappers to check Java programs with respect to a policy.Comment: 28 pages, 22 figures, in color (but color is not essential for viewing); UC Davis CS department technical report (July 22, 1998

    Current-induced phase control in charged-ordered Nd0.5Ca0.5MnO3 and Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 crystals

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    Single crystals of Nd0.5Ca0.5MnO3 and Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 show current-induced insulator-metal transitions at low temperatures. In addition, the charge-ordering transition temperature decreases with increasing current. The electroresistive ratio, defined as r0.5/rI where r0.5 is the resistivity at a current of 0.5 mA and rI the resistivity at a given applied current, I, varies markedly with temperature and the value of I. Thermal hysteresis observed in Nd0.5Ca0.5MnO3 and Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 at the insulator-metal transition indicates that the transition is first-order. The current-induced changes are comparable to those induced by magnetic fields, and the insulator-metal transition in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 is accordingly associated with a larger drop in resistivity.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figures, first submitted to submitted to J. Phys. D; applied physics on 18th march 200

    Bleed-Through Removal in Document Images

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    When documents are written on both sides, quite often ink bleeds through the paper. This is a common phenomenon with old documents and low quality paper. With the presence of increased bleed-through, reading and deciphering the text becomes tedious. This thesis implements algorithms for reducing bleed-through distortion using techniques in digital image processing. A comparative study of three methods has been performed with the first being basic enhancement through thresholding. The next two methods are founded on a registration process which aims at working on both the recto and verso sides simultaneously. Firstly, both sides of the documents are digitized. The verso is then flipped and corrected so as to correspond to the coordinates of one side exactly with the coordinates of the original writing on the other which is done using an affine transformation of six parameters. The parameters are found by optimizing the alignment process. A restoration algorithm is then applied to remove bleed though areas on the desired side page. The third method proposes the use of cross correlation to handle the registration process. The accuracy of bleed-through correction is found to be largely dependent on the accuracy of alignment of the documents
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