908 research outputs found

    AMR Sign - An Arthroscopic S-shaped Fold Signifying Adequate Medial Meniscus Repair

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    Introduction: The preferred management of medial meniscus tears has notably moved from meniscectomies towards repair. With a higher volume of meniscal repairs being done all across the world with every passing day, the lack of an objective and definitive sign suggesting the adequacy of its repair is daunting. The purpose of our study was to introduce a unique and novel arthroscopic sign formed after adequate repair of the medial meniscus, the AMR (Adequacy of Medial meniscus Repair) sign. We hypothesised that it is not only the objective end point for repair, but can also form the indicator for excellent clinical, functional, and radiological outcome even in the long term. Materials and methods: This was a multicentric, prospective study initiated by the corresponding author, and the findings validated subsequently by the other authors. Overall, it included 804 patients of isolated medial meniscus tear operated with arthroscopic all-inside technique between January 2014 and December 2017. Patients were segregated into three groups based on whether an S-shaped curve in the free, inner edge of the medial meniscus sign was formed post-repair, lost after further tightening, or not formed upon subjective completion of repair. All the patients were followed-up and evaluated based of medial joint line tenderness, McMurray’s test for medial meniscus, IKDC score, WOMET score, and radiologically using an MRI at the terminal follow-up. Results: The mean terminal follow-up was 42.34±4.54 months. There was significant (p<0.01) improvement in all patients at the terminal follow-up post-surgery, irrespective of the group. The group in which AMR sign was formed and maintained showed a significantly better functional outcome on terminal follow-up as well as lower failure rates compared to the other two groups. Conclusion: AMR sign is an S-shaped fold at the inner, free edge of medial meniscus, formed after an adequate repair of isolated medial meniscus tear, as viewed on arthroscopy. It is an objective sign denoting regained integrity of the collagen architecture of the medial meniscus following repair. It is also a reliable indicator of excellent long term functional, clinical, and radiological outcome and also lower failure rates in patients after arthroscopic medial meniscus repair

    A cluster randomized control trial of an Electronic Decision-Support System to enhance antenatal care services in pregnancy at primary healthcare level in Telangana, India:Trial protocol

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    BACKGROUND: India contributes 15% of the total global maternal mortality burden. An increasing proportion of these deaths are due to Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), and anaemia. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet-based electronic decision-support system (EDSS) to enhance routine antenatal care (ANC) and improve the screening and management of PIH, GDM, and anaemia in pregnancy in primary healthcare facilities of Telangana, India. The EDSS will work at two levels of primary health facilities and is customized for three cadres of healthcare providers – Auxiliary Nurse Midwifes (ANMs), staff nurses, and physicians (Medical Officers). METHODS: This will be a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 66 clusters with a total of 1320 women in both the intervention and control arms. Each cluster will include three health facilities—one Primary Health Centre (PHC) and two linked sub-centers (SC). In the facilities under the intervention arm, ANMs, staff nurses, and Medical Officers will use the EDSS while providing ANC for all pregnant women. Facilities in the control arm will continue to provide ANC services using the existing standard of care in Telangana. The primary outcome is ANC quality, measured as provision of a composite of four selected ANC components (measurement of blood pressure, blood glucose, hemoglobin levels, and conducting a urinary dipstick test) by the healthcare providers per visit, observed over two visits. Trained field research staff will collect outcome data via an observation checklist. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first trial in India to evaluate an EDSS, targeted to enhance the quality of ANC and improve the screening and management of PIH, GDM, and anaemia, for multiple levels of health facilities and several cadres of healthcare providers. If effective, insights from the trial on the feasibility and cost of implementing the EDSS can inform potential national scale-up. Lessons learned from this trial will also inform recommendations for designing and upscaling similar mHealth interventions in other low and middle-income countries. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03700034, registered 9 Oct 2018, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03700034 CTRI, CTRI/2019/01/016857, registered on 3 Mar 2019, http://www.ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/pdf_generate.php?trialid=28627&EncHid=&modid=&compid=%27,%2728627det%27 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12884-022-05249-y

    Vaccine breakthrough hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs

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    Life-threatening `breakthrough' cases of critical COVID-19 are attributed to poor or waning antibody response to the SARS- CoV-2 vaccine in individuals already at risk. Pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I IFNs underlie at least 15% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases in unvaccinated individuals; however, their contribution to hypoxemic breakthrough cases in vaccinated people remains unknown. Here, we studied a cohort of 48 individuals ( age 20-86 years) who received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccine and developed a breakthrough infection with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia 2 weeks to 4 months later. Antibody levels to the vaccine, neutralization of the virus, and auto- Abs to type I IFNs were measured in the plasma. Forty-two individuals had no known deficiency of B cell immunity and a normal antibody response to the vaccine. Among them, ten (24%) had auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs (aged 43-86 years). Eight of these ten patients had auto-Abs neutralizing both IFN-a2 and IFN-., while two neutralized IFN-omega only. No patient neutralized IFN-ss. Seven neutralized 10 ng/mL of type I IFNs, and three 100 pg/mL only. Seven patients neutralized SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) efficiently, while one patient neutralized Delta slightly less efficiently. Two of the three patients neutralizing only 100 pg/mL of type I IFNs neutralized both D61G and Delta less efficiently. Despite two mRNA vaccine inoculations and the presence of circulating antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs may underlie a significant proportion of hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia cases, highlighting the importance of this particularly vulnerable population

    Clinical Characteristics, Racial Inequities, and Outcomes in Patients with Breast Cancer and COVID-19: A COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) Cohort Study

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    BACKGROUND: Limited information is available for patients with breast cancer (BC) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially among underrepresented racial/ethnic populations. METHODS: This is a COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) registry-based retrospective cohort study of females with active or history of BC and laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosed between March 2020 and June 2021 in the US. Primary outcome was COVID-19 severity measured on a five-level ordinal scale, including none of the following complications, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression model identified characteristics associated with COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: 1383 female patient records with BC and COVID-19 were included in the analysis, the median age was 61 years, and median follow-up was 90 days. Multivariable analysis revealed higher odds of COVID-19 severity for older age (aOR per decade, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.32-1.67]); Black patients (aOR 1.74; 95 CI 1.24-2.45), Asian Americans and Pacific Islander patients (aOR 3.40; 95 CI 1.70-6.79) and Other (aOR 2.97; 95 CI 1.71-5.17) racial/ethnic groups; worse ECOG performance status (ECOG PS ≄2: aOR, 7.78 [95% CI, 4.83-12.5]); pre-existing cardiovascular (aOR, 2.26 [95% CI, 1.63-3.15])/pulmonary comorbidities (aOR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.20-2.29]); diabetes mellitus (aOR, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.66-3.04]); and active and progressing cancer (aOR, 12.5 [95% CI, 6.89-22.6]). Hispanic ethnicity, timing, and type of anti-cancer therapy modalities were not significantly associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. The total all-cause mortality and hospitalization rate for the entire cohort was 9% and 37%, respectively however, it varied according to the BC disease status. CONCLUSIONS: Using one of the largest registries on cancer and COVID-19, we identified patient and BC-related factors associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, underrepresented racial/ethnic patients experienced worse outcomes compared to non-Hispanic White patients. FUNDING: This study was partly supported by National Cancer Institute grant number P30 CA068485 to Tianyi Sun, Sanjay Mishra, Benjamin French, Jeremy L Warner; P30-CA046592 to Christopher R Friese; P30 CA023100 for Rana R McKay; P30-CA054174 for Pankil K Shah and Dimpy P Shah; KL2 TR002646 for Pankil Shah and the American Cancer Society and Hope Foundation for Cancer Research (MRSG-16-152-01-CCE) and P30-CA054174 for Dimpy P Shah. REDCap is developed and supported by Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research grant support (UL1 TR000445 from NCATS/NIH). The funding sources had no role in the writing of the manuscript or the decision to submit it for publication. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: CCC19 registry is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04354701

    Performance Analysis of Task Offloading in Mobile Edge Cloud Computing for Brain Tumor Classification Using Deep Learning

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    The increasing prevalence of brain tumors necessitates accurate and efficient methods for their identification and classification. While deep learning (DL) models have shown promise in this domain, their computational demands pose challenges when deploying them on resource-constrained mobile devices. This paper investigates the potential of Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) and Task Offloading to improve the performance of DL models for brain tumor classification. A comprehensive framework was developed, considering the computational capabilities of mobile devices and edge servers, as well as communication costs associated with task offloading. Various factors influencing task offloading decisions were analyzed, including model size, available resources, and network conditions. Results demonstrate that task offloading effectively reduces the time and energy required to process DL models for brain tumor classification, while maintaining accuracy. The study emphasizes the need to balance computation and communication costs when deciding on task offloading. These findings have significant implications for the development of efficient mobile edge computing systems for medical applications. Leveraging MEC and Task Offloading enables healthcare professionals to utilize DL models for brain tumor classification on resource-constrained mobile devices, ensuring accurate and timely diagnoses. These technological advancements pave the way for more accessible and efficient medical solutions in the future

    Haploinsufficiency of NFKBIA reshapes the epigenome antipodal to the IDH mutation and imparts disease fate in diffuse gliomas.

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    Genetic alterations help predict the clinical behavior of diffuse gliomas, but some variability remains uncorrelated. Here, we demonstrate that haploinsufficient deletions of chromatin-bound tumor suppressor NFKB inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA) display distinct patterns of occurrence in relation to other genetic markers and are disproportionately present at recurrence. NFKBIA haploinsufficiency is associated with unfavorable patient outcomes, independent of genetic and clinicopathologic predictors. NFKBIA deletions reshape the DNA and histone methylome antipodal to the IDH mutation and induce a transcriptome landscape partly reminiscent of H3K27M mutant pediatric gliomas. In IDH mutant gliomas, NFKBIA deletions are common in tumors with a clinical course similar to that of IDH wild-type tumors. An externally validated nomogram model for estimating individual patient survival in IDH mutant gliomas confirms that NFKBIA deletions predict comparatively brief survival. Thus, NFKBIA haploinsufficiency aligns with distinct epigenome changes, portends a poor prognosis, and should be incorporated into models predicting the disease fate of diffuse gliomas

    Innate immune cell instruction using micron-scale 3D objects of varied architecture and polymer chemistry: The ChemoArchiChip

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    To design effective immunomodulatory implants, innate immune cell interactions at the surface of biomaterials need to be controlled and understood. The architectural design freedom of two-photon polymerization is used to produce arrays of surface-mounted, geometrically diverse 3D polymer objects. This reveals the importance of the interplay between architecture and materials chemistry in determining human macrophage fate in vitro. The ChemoArchiChip identifies key structure-function relationships and design rules from machine learning models to build a mechanistic understanding of cell attachment and polarization. Object shape, vertex/cone angle, and size are key drivers of attachment. Particular shapes are found to heavily modulate pro- or anti-inflammatory cell polarization, while triangular pyramids drastically reduce or even eliminate attachment. Caveola-dependent endocytosis is a principal mechanism by which cells respond to objects with sharp points; i.e., low vertex/cone angles. The discovery of these putative design rules points to surfaces decorated with architectures to augment implant performance

    Application of liberation analysis in ferromanganese encrustations from South Andaman Sea: An automated mineral identification technique using TIMA

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    918-929Automated scanning electron microscopic studies got wide acceptance in identification of various mineral phases; its classification and characterization based on their composition and abundance in semi quantitative manner. Nowadays, these techniques are adopted in understanding various poorly crystalline and amorphous materials to reveal the actual mineral assemblages. Primary mineral phases of five ferromanganese crust and nodule samples collected from West Sewell Ridge and Sewell Rise in South Andaman Sea are studied using automated mineral analyser to understand the mineral assemblages and their micro textures. The internal morphology of these encrustations is densely parallel to sub parallel micro botryoidal textures indicating colloidal precipitated origin from ambient seawater. Since crust and nodules are formed by colloidal precipitation, unclassified materials observed in primary phase analyses may represent the presence of poorly crystalline and amorphous ferromanganese colloidal phases. The liberation analysis, Back Scattered Electron image (BSE), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and elemental mapping of the samples revealed occurrence of manganese - iron oxyhydroxides as alternate laminations/ thin layers along with detrital materials; that forms the composition and internal texture. Major mineral phases identified from liberation analysis using TIMA are todorokite, vernadite, Fe vernadite, cryptomelane, ferrogedrite, glauconite, Fe oxides disseminated, quartz, biotite, orthoclase, illite, plagioclase, amphibole, zinwaldite, and romanechite. Thus, automated mineral identification using TIMA can be effectively adopted for mineral phase identification in ferromanganese encrustations, which is rather difficult using other techniques

    Predictors of embolism and death in left-sided infective endocarditis: the European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme European Infective Endocarditis registry

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    International audienceBackground and Aims Even though vegetation size in infective endocarditis (IE) has been associated with embolic events (EEs) and mortality risk, it is unclear whether vegetation size associated with these potential outcomes is different in left-sided IE (LSIE). This study aimed to seek assessing the vegetation cut-off size as predictor of EE or 30-day mortality for LSIE and to determine risk predictors of these outcomes. Methods The European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme European Infective Endocarditis is a prospective, multicentre registry including patients with definite or possible IE throughout 2016–18. Cox multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess variables associated with EE or 30-day mortality. Results There were 2171 patients with LSIE (women 31.5%). Among these affected patients, 459 (21.1%) had a new EE or died in 30 days. The cut-off value of vegetation size for predicting EEs or 30-day mortality was &gt;10 mm [hazard ratio (HR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–1.69, P = .0015]. Other adjusted predictors of risk of EE or death were as follows: EE on admission (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.54–2.33, P &lt; .0001), history of heart failure (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.21–1.93, P = .0004), creatinine &gt;2 mg/dL (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.25–2.03, P = .0002), Staphylococcus aureus (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08–1.70, P = .008), congestive heart failure (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12–1.75, P = .003), presence of haemorrhagic stroke (HR 4.57, 95% CI 3.08–6.79, P &lt; .0001), alcohol abuse (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04–2.03, P = .03), presence of cardiogenic shock (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.29–3.34, P = .003), and not performing left surgery (HR 1.30 95% CI 1.05–1.61, P = .016) (C-statistic = .68). Conclusions Prognosis after LSIE is determined by multiple factors, including vegetation size
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