33 research outputs found

    YKL-40 is a CSF biomarker of intrathecal inflammation in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

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    YKL-40 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein predominantly produced by reactive astrocytes in chronic active MS lesions, which are common in secondary progressive MS. In this study, YKL-40 was investigated in different stages of MS and in relation to MRI findings. YKL-40 levels in CSF samples from two independent patient cohorts of MS patients were determined with ELISA. CSF YKL-40 was increased in patients with active relapsing–remitting MS and correlated with the number of gadolinium enhancing lesions. Patients with secondary progressive MS had similar high levels of YKL-40, whereas not active relapsing–remitting MS patients had YKL-40 levels comparable to healthy controls

    Reliability of MRI findings in candidates for lumbar disc prosthesis

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    Introduction: Limited reliability data exist for localised magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings relevant to planning of treatment with lumbar disc prosthesis and later outcomes. We assessed the reliability of such findings in chronic low back pain patients who were accepted candidates for disc prosthesis. Methods: On pretreatment MRI of 170 patients (mean age 41 years; 88 women), three experienced radiologists independently rated Modic changes, disc findings and facet arthropathy at L3/L4, L4/L5 and L5/S1. Two radiologists rerated 126 examinations. For each MRI finding at each disc level, agreement was analysed using the kappa statistic and differences in prevalence across observers using a fixed effects model. Results: All findings at L3/L4 and facet arthropathy at L5/S1 had a mean prevalence <10% across observers and were not further analysed, ensuring interpretable kappa values. Overall interobserver agreement was generally moderate or good (kappa 0.40–0.77) at L4–S1 for Modic changes, nucleus pulposus signal, disc height (subjective and measured), posterior high-intensity zone (HIZ) and disc contour, and fair (kappa 0.24) at L4/L5 for facet arthropathy. Posterior HIZ at L5/S1 and severely reduced subjective disc height at L4/L5 differed up to threefold in prevalence between observers (p< 0.0001). Intraobserver agreement was mostly good or very good (kappa 0.60–1.00). Conclusion: In candidates for disc prosthesis, mostly moderate interobserver agreement is expected for localised MRI findings

    Puna-apilan siemensadon korjuukokeita

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    Two brothers with macrocephaly, progressive cerebral atrophy and abnormal white matter, severe mental retardation, and Lennox-Gastaut spectrum type epilepsy: an inherited encephalopathy of childhood?

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    Two brothers with severe mental retardation of unknown origin were found to share several physical anomalies, including large round head, small concave nose, downslanted palpebral fissures, and gingival hyperplasia. In addition to relative macrocephaly, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe cerebral atrophy, especially fronto-temporally. The brothers also had a thin corpus callosum and atrophic caudate nuclei. The reduced white matter showed patchy periventricular signal intensity changes. The lateral and third ventricles were large, but the fourth ventricle was of normal size. The boys had large cisterna magna, communicating widely with the fourth ventricle, but no vermian hypoplasia. Both boys had Lennox-Gastaut spectrum type epilepsy. No chromosomal anomalies were found, despite the suggestive clinical picture. Some of the clinical findings resembled fetal alcohol effects/fetal alcohol syndrome (FAE/FAS), which was also suggested by history. Current diagnostic criteria for FAE/FAS, however, excluded full-blown FAS in these cases and failed to explain the entire clinical picture in the boys. We argue that these boys had an unidentified inherited syndrome, possibly modified by fetal alcohol exposure
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