7,991 research outputs found

    Prioritizing Rhythmic Analysis: Temporal Organization of ’Are’are Solo Polyphonic Panpipe Pieces

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    The repertoire of polyphonic panpipe music for solo performance, termed ‚Äú‚Äėau ni aau,‚ÄĚ by ‚ÄėAre‚Äėare musicians in the southern part of Malaita Island in the Solomon Islands is seemingly unique among musical traditions. As Hugo Zemp showed in 1981 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/851551), solo polyphonic panpipes were designed so that some pairs of adjacent pipes could be sounded simultaneously to produce two or three kinds of dyads within each piece rather than being restricted to single tones as is usual in solo panpipe performance. Whereas Zemp‚Äôs analyses understandably focused on aspects of tuning and melodic structure, the present report treats features of temporal organization as its starting point and main concern. As well, in order to draw conclusions that might provide a basis for comparisons with other pieces and performers in the much larger repertoire of solo polyphonic panpipe music, the pieces analysed here are by a single ‚ÄôAre‚Äôare musician, Manamaetara of Takataka in the southeastern part of the island. In this regard, the Centre de Recherche en Ethnomusicologie (CREM) has streamed these pieces to the public (https://archives.crem-cnrs.fr/archives/items/CNRSMH_E_1995_004_001_001_04/dc/ and has graciously made them available to me as individual files for detailed acoustical analysis. Since Zemp‚Äôs initial study, software that provides acoustical corroboration of, and elaboration on, what one can hear in the original recordings has become widely accessible, both for free (e.g., Audacity: https://www.audacityteam.org/) or almost free (e.g., Transcribe!: https://www.seventhstring.com/xscribe/overview.html). By means of such software one can trace with precision temporal aspects of the pieces that inform one‚Äôs understanding of topics raised in his original analysis. In particular, the pieces‚Äô inter-onset intervals (IOIs), inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs), amplitude envelopes, and changing frequency spectra within individual dyads yield information relevant to the pieces‚Äô meters, tempos, segmentations, formal structures, tremolos, and types of articulation, as well as issues concerning their relationship with the performer‚Äôs breath control, the layout of the polyphonic panpipe itself, and comparisons with the repertoire of polyphonic music for ‚ÄôAre‚Äôare panpipe ensembles. In the present report, these topics are approached analytically in bottom-up fashion by applications of the Gestalt Grouping Principles of Similarity and Proximity (Wertheimer 1923) as well as the closely related principle of Analogy (http://iftawm.org/journal/oldsite/articles/2011a/Rahn_AAWM_Vol_1_1.htm).AAWM Special Topics Symposium 2023, Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York Cit

    Specialised nursing tasks in cancer care and their effects

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    <jats:title>Zusammenfassung</jats:title><jats:p>Die penetrierende Kniegelenkverletzung ist ein seltenes Trauma, welches jedoch nicht untersch√§tzt werden darf. In der Regel besteht die Indikation zur zeitnahen operativen Versorgung. Dieser Fallbericht handelt von einem 17-j√§hrigen Patienten, der durch einen Messerstich eine Knorpelverletzung der lateralen Femurkondyle erlitt. Es folgte die Gelenksp√ľlung mit Bergung des Knorpelflakes und endg√ľltiger Versorgung mittels autologer Chondrozytentransplantation. Die Gewinnung von Knorpelzellen aus dem Flake unterblieb aufgrund des Risikos einer Keimbesiedlung sowie des Qualit√§tsverlustes der Chondrozyten.</jats:p&gt

    Towards Sustainable Aviation: Addressing Gaps and Future Perspectives in Life Cycle Assessment

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    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an increasingly vital tool for assessing the environmental impact of aircraft, which is a growing concern for the aviation industry. While significant progress has been made in recent years, there are still critical gaps in understanding the environmental impact of aviation. In particular, there is a lack of a proper aircraft-specific inventory, which limits accurate LCA calculations. In addition, there is no common understanding of how to link LCA results to flight impacts at high altitudes. This presentation provides a comprehensive overview of these gaps, including their causes, consequences, and possible solutions. In particular, we highlight the importance of developing an aircraft-specific database, which is being addressed within the ALICIA project at the German Aerospace Center (DLR e.V.). Finally, we provide an outlook on the future development of LCA for aviation, including the need for further research and development in this area

    Revis√£o da farmacoterapia intra-hospitalar: an√°lise de risco e de rede

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    Objetivo: Analisar a rela√ß√£o entre os Problemas Relacionados a Medicamentos (PRM) e os medicamentos identificados no processo de revis√£o da farmacoterapia (RF) de um hospital universit√°rio. M√©todo: Trata-se de um estudo observacional retrospectivo e transversal. Os registros de PRM do per√≠odo do estudo (2019-2020) foram coletados de um banco de dados de RF hospitalar e classificados conforme a Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE). Em seguida, um painel de especialistas (farmac√™uticos e m√©dicos) analisou a signific√Ęncia cl√≠nica do PRM inclu√≠do, em formul√°rio online, com base no Hazard Scoring Matrix (HSM). Utilizando o software Gephi foram constru√≠das duas redes para visualiza√ß√£o da rela√ß√£o entre os PRM e os medicamentos nas seguintes perspectivas: (i) dos farmac√™uticos do hospital; e (ii) do painel de especialistas. Resultados: 1250 PRM relacionados a 177 medicamentos diferentes foram inclu√≠dos e compilados em 202 combina√ß√Ķes diferentes de ‚ÄúPRM-medicamento‚ÄĚ. Pelo PCNE 41,6% dos PRM foram classificados como classe C1 (sele√ß√£o do medicamento), 20,32% como C5 (dispensa√ß√£o) e 13,76% da classe C3 (sele√ß√£o de dose). Pelo painel de especialistas, a combina√ß√£o de ‚Äúsele√ß√£o de dose- antibi√≥tico‚ÄĚ foi a que apresentou maior risco na an√°lise global e de farmac√™uticos. Para os m√©dicos, a combina√ß√£o ‚Äúmonitoramento - anticoagulantes antagonistas de vitamina K‚ÄĚ foi classificada com o maior risco. Em contrapartida, a combina√ß√£o ‚Äúsele√ß√£o do medicamento- antiulcerosos‚ÄĚ, que foi a mais encontrada na base de dados foi classificada pelos especialistas com escore de risco baixo (HSM 6). Conclus√£o: A signific√Ęncia das combina√ß√Ķes ‚ÄúPRM-medicamento‚ÄĚ foi diferente quando comparados os resultados pr√© e p√≥s an√°lise de risco. Assim, demonstrou-se que o HSM pode ser uma ferramenta √ļtil para melhorar a avalia√ß√£o do PRM e padronizar os servi√ßos de RF, orientando os farmac√™uticos para situa√ß√Ķes de maior ¬†signific√Ęncia cl√≠nica e aumentando sua efic√°cia na melhoria dos resultados de sa√ļde

    Policy Optimization in a Noisy Neighborhood: On Return Landscapes in Continuous Control

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    Deep reinforcement learning agents for continuous control are known to exhibit significant instability in their performance over time. In this work, we provide a fresh perspective on these behaviors by studying the return landscape: the mapping between a policy and a return. We find that popular algorithms traverse noisy neighborhoods of this landscape, in which a single update to the policy parameters leads to a wide range of returns. By taking a distributional view of these returns, we map the landscape, characterizing failure-prone regions of policy space and revealing a hidden dimension of policy quality. We show that the landscape exhibits surprising structure by finding simple paths in parameter space which improve the stability of a policy. To conclude, we develop a distribution-aware procedure which finds such paths, navigating away from noisy neighborhoods in order to improve the robustness of a policy. Taken together, our results provide new insight into the optimization, evaluation, and design of agents.Comment: NeurIPS 2023 Accepted Pape

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pantoprazole in calves

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    Introduction: Development of abomasal ulceration is a large concern, especially within calves; however, there is a paucity of research into the use of gastro protectants in ruminant species. Proton pump inhibitors, such as pantoprazole, are widely used in humans and companion animals. Their efficacy in ruminant species is undetermined. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters for pantoprazole in neonatal calves after three days of intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration, and 2) measure the effect pantoprazole had on abomasal pH over the treatment period. Methods: Pantoprazole was administered to 6 Holstein-Angus cross bull calves at a dose of 1 mg/kg (IV) or 2 mg/kg (SC), once a day (every 24 h) for three days. Plasma samples were collected over a 72 h period and analyzed via HPLC-UV for determining pantoprazole concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived via non-compartmental analysis. Abomasal (n= 8) samples were collected via abomasal cannulas over a 12 h period, per calf per day. Abomasal pH was determined via a bench top pH analyzer. Results: Following Day 1 of IV administration, plasma clearance, elimination half-life, and volume of distribution of pantoprazole were estimated at 199.9 mL/kg/h, 1.44 h, and 0.51 L/kg, respectively. On Day 3 of IV administration, the reported values were 192.9 mL/kg/h, 2.52 h, and 1.80 L/kg mL, respectively. Elimination half-life and volume of distribution (V/F) of pantoprazole following SC administration were estimated at 1.81 h and 0.55 L/kg, respectively, on Day 1; and 2.99 h and 2.82 L/kg, respectively, on Day 3. Discussion: The reported values for IV administration were similar to those previously reported in calves. SC administration appears to be well absorbed and tolerated. The sulfone metabolite was detectable for 36 h after the last administration for both routes. Abomasal pH was significantly higher than the pre-pantoprazole pH 4, 6, and 8 h after administration in both the IV and SC groups. Further studies of pantoprazole as a treatment/preventative for abomasal ulcers are warranted.This article is published as Olivarez, Jeff D., Pierre-Yves Mulon, Lisa S. Ebner, Haley Cremerius, Channing Cantrell, Rebecca Rahn, Windy Soto-Gonzalez et al. "Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pantoprazole in calves." Frontiers in Veterinary Science 9 (2022). DOI: 10.3389%2Ffvets.2022.1101461. Copyright 2023 Olivarez, Mulon, Ebner, Cremerius, Cantrell, Rahn, Soto-Gonzalez, Bergman, Cox, Mochel, Kreuder and Smith. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Posted with permission

    Towards double parton distributions from first principles using Large Momentum Effective Theory

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    Abstract In double parton scattering (DPS), two partonic collisions take place between one pair of colliding hadrons. The effect of DPS can be significant for precision measurements due to the additional radiation from secondary partonic collisions, and especially for specific processes such as same-sign WW production. Its effect is usually included through Monte Carlo parton showers. In a factorization approach to DPS, the initial state is described by double parton distributions (DPDs). These are currently poorly constrained by experiment, but provide a view on interesting correlations between partons in the hadron. Here we show that the Large Momentum Effective Theory approach can be applied to DPDs. Specifically, we present a general matching relation between DPDs and lattice-calculable quasi-DPDs for general flavor, spin and color structures. We furthermore calculate the one-loop matching coefficients for the quark-quark DPDs, verifying that the infrared logarithms and divergences cancel in the matching. While we restrict to the flavor-non-singlet case, we do take color and spin correlations into account. Interestingly, quasi-DPDs combines nontrivial features from both the collinear and transverse momentum dependent quasi-parton distribution functions. This represents a first step in extending the quasi-PDF approach to DPDs, opening up a new way to constrain these distributions using lattice QCD
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