420 research outputs found

    Cytidylytransferases in chol and wild type strains

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    Cytidylytransferases in chol and wild type strain

    Piscine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1B

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    Glucuronidation is an important detoxification pathway for organic pollutants in fish. We report here the isolation and characterisation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) genes from the closely related marine flatfish, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus). The deduced amino acid sequences share greater similarity with mammalian UGT1 family genes than UGT2 genes (44-47% and 39-40% amino acid identity respectively) and have been designated UGT1B. Both plaice and flounder UGT1B mRNAs are most highly expressed in liver, but are also expressed in intestine, gill, kidney and adipose tissue to a greater extent than muscle, heart or brain. Plaice UGT1B mRNA was undetectable in gametes or fertilised eggs and there was a large increase in expression between gastrulation and myotome formation after which levels declined some 5-10 fold. Flounder UGT1B mRNA was increased in liver after intraperitoneal injection of Arochlor 1254 or lindane, but not after perflourooctanoic acid or 3-methylcholanthrene. In isolated flounder hepatocytes UGT1B mRNA was increased by benzo(a)pyrene but not by ethynylestradiol. Expression of a cDNA for plaice UGT1B in cos7 cells resulted in higher 1-naphthol conjugation in cell homogenates compared to steroid conjugation, whilst bilirubin and bile acid conjugation undetectable. This indicates that the plaice gene codes for the phenol-conjugating UGT previously purified in our laboratory from this species and that it is likely to play a major role in the detoxification of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in flatfish. Its role in development is unknown. UGT1B genes are also present in pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) genomes, but that they differ in their genic organisation. Pufferfish possess multiple (repeated) complete UGT1 genes and Southern blots indicate that the homologous plaice UGT1B gene may also be organised in this way. In contrast, zebrafish appear to have two UGT1 loci whose sequences and intron/exon structures are closely related to that of plaice, however, the organisation of these genes is similar to the mammalian UGT1 family since each has multiple repeated exon 1’s which are alternatively spliced to a common set of exons encoding the aglycone binding domain. Taken together with evidence from phylogenetic comparison of fish sequences with UGT1 and UGT2 families in mammals, we suggest these homologous fish UGTs should all be included within the vertebrate UGT1 family and designated as UGT1B

    Monohydroxylated metabolites of the K2 synthetic cannabinoid JWH-073 retain intermediate to high cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) affinity and exhibit neutral antagonist to partial agonist activity

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    K2 and several similar purported “incense products” spiked with synthetic cannabinoids are abused as cannabis substitutes. We hypothesized that metabolism of JWH-073, a prevalent cannabinoid found in K2, contributes to toxicity associated with K2 use. Competition receptor binding studies and G-protein activation assays, both performed by employing mouse brain homogenates, were used to determine the affinity and intrinsic activity, respectively, of potential monohydroxylated (M1, M3–M5) and monocarboxylated (M6) metabolites at cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs). Surprisingly, M1, M4 and M5 retain nanomolar affinity for CB1Rs, while M3 displays micromolar affinity and M6 does not bind to CB1Rs. JWH-073 displays equivalent efficacy to that of the CB1R full agonist CP-55,940, while M1, M3, and M5 act as CB1R partial agonists, and M4 shows little or no intrinsic activity. Further in vitro investigation by Schild analysis revealed that M4 acts as a competitive neutral CB1R antagonist (Kb~40nM). In agreement with in vitro studies, M4 also demonstrates CB1R antagonism in vivo by blunting cannabinoid-induced hypothermia in mice. Interestingly, M4 does not block agonist-mediated responses of other measures in the cannabinoid tetrad (e.g., locomotor suppression, catalepsy or analgesia). Finally, also as predicted by in vitro results, M1 exhibits agonist activity in vivo by inducing significant hypothermia and suppression of locomotor activity in mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that further work examining the physiological effects of synthetic cannabinoid metabolism is warranted. Such a complex mix of metabolically produced CB1R ligands may contribute to the adverse effect profile of JWH-073-containing products

    Ethylenediamine functionalized-single-walled nanotube (f-SWNT)-assisted in vitro delivery of the oncogene suppressor p53 gene to breast cancer MCF-7 cells

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    A gene delivery concept based on ethylenediamine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs) using the oncogene suppressor p53 gene as a model gene was successfully tested in vitro in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The f-SWCNTs-p53 complexes were introduced into the cell medium at a concentration of 20 μg mL−1 and cells were exposed for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Standard ethidium bromide and acridine orange assays were used to detect apoptotic cells and indicated that a significantly larger percentage of the cells (approx 40%) were dead after 72 hours of exposure to f-SWCNTs-p53 as compared to the control cells, which were exposed to only p53 or f-SWCNTs, respectively. To further support the uptake and expression of the genes within the cells, green fluorescent protein-tagged p53, attached to the f-SWCNTs was added to the medium and the complex was observed to be strongly expressed in the cells. Moreover, caspase 3 activity was found to be highly enhanced in cells incubated with the f-SWCNTs-p53 complex, indicating strongly induced apoptosis. This system could be the foundation for novel gene delivery platforms based on the unique structural and morphological properties of multi-functional nanomaterials

    The crystal structure of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 C-terminal end is the first mammalian UGT target to be revealed: the significance for human UGTs from both the 1A and 2B families

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    Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.17) (UGTs) are major phase II metabolism enzymes that detoxify a multitude of endo- and xenobiotics through the covalent addition of a glucuronic acid moiety. UGTs are promiscuous enzymes that regulate the levels of numerous important endobiotics in a range of tissues, and inactivate most therapeutic compounds in concert with phase I enzymes. In spite of the importance of these enzymes, we have only a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing their substrate specificity and catalytic activity. Until recently, no three-dimensional structural information was available for any mammalian UGT. The 1.8-Å resolution apo crystal structure of the UDP-glucuronic acid binding domain of human UGT2B7 (2B7CT) is the only structure of a mammalian UGT target determined to date. In this review, we summarize what has been learned about human UGT function from the analysis of this and other related glycosyltransferase (GT) crystal structures

    Crystal Structure of the Cofactor-Binding Domain of the Human Phase II Drug-Metabolism Enzyme UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B7

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    Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are the dominant phase II conjugative drug metabolism enzymes that also play a central role in the processing of a range of endobiotic compounds. UGTs catalyze the covalent addition of glucuronic acid sugar moieties to a host of therapeutics and environmental toxins, as well as to a variety of endogenous steroids and other signaling molecules. We report the 1.8 Å resolution apo crystal structure of the UDP-glucuronic acid binding domain of human UGT isoform 2B7 (UGT2B7), which catalyzes the conjugative elimination of opioid, antiviral, and anticancer drugs. This is the first crystal structure of any region of a mammalian UGT drug metabolism enzyme. Designed UGT2B7 mutants at residues predicted to interact with the UDP-glucuronic acid cofactor exhibited significantly impaired catalytic activity, with maximum effects observed for amino acids closest to the glucuronic acid sugar transferred to the acceptor molecule. Homology modeling of UGT2B7 with related plant flavonoid glucosyltransferases indicate that human UGTs share a common catalytic mechanism. Point mutations at predicted catalytic residues in UGT2B7 abrogated activity, strongly suggesting that human UGTs also utilize a serine hydrolase-like catalytic mechanism to facilitate glucuronic acid transfer

    The First Aspartic Acid of the DQxD Motif for Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A10 Interacts with UDP-Glucuronic Acid during Catalysis

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    All UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) share a common cofactor, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA). The binding site for UDP-GlcUA is localized to the C-terminal domain of UGTs on the basis of amino acid sequence homology analysis and crystal structures of glycosyltransferases, including the C-terminal domain of human UGT2B7. We hypothesized that the 393DQMD-NAK399 region of human UGT1A10 interacts with the glucuronic acid moiety of UDP-GlcUA. Using site-directed mutagenesis and enzymatic analysis, we demonstrated that the D393A mutation abolished the glucuronidation activity of UGT1A10 toward all substrates. The effects of the alanine mutation at Q394, D396, and K399 on glucuronidation activities were substrate-dependent. Previously, we examined the importance of these residues in UGT2B7. Although D393 (D398 in UGT2B7) is similarly critical for UDP-GlcUA binding in both enzymes, the effects of Q394 (Q399 in UGT2B7) to Ala mutation on activity were significant but different between UGT1A10 and UGT2B7. A model of the UDP-GlcUA binding site suggests that the contribution of other residues to cosubstrate binding may explain these differences between UGT1A10 and UGT2B7. We thus postulate that D393 is critical for the binding of glucuronic acid and that proximal residues, e.g., Q394 (Q399 in UGT2B7), play a subtle role in cosubstrate binding in UGT1A10 and UGT2B7. Hence, this study provides important new information needed for the identification and understanding of the binding sites of UGTs, a major step forward in elucidating their molecular mechanism
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