281 research outputs found

    Diving into the vertical dimension of elasmobranch movement ecology

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from the American Association for the Advancement of Science via the DOI in this recordData and materials availability: Processed data and code used in the analysis are accessible from the Zenodo Repository: 10.5281/zenodo.6885455Knowledge of the three-dimensional movement patterns of elasmobranchs is vital to understand their ecological roles and exposure to anthropogenic pressures. To date, comparative studies among species at global scales have mostly focused on horizontal movements. Our study addresses the knowledge gap of vertical movements by compiling the first global synthesis of vertical habitat use by elasmobranchs from data obtained by deployment of 989 biotelemetry tags on 38 elasmobranch species. Elasmobranchs displayed high intra- and interspecific variability in vertical movement patterns. Substantial vertical overlap was observed for many epipelagic elasmobranchs, indicating an increased likelihood to display spatial overlap, biologically interact, and share similar risk to anthropogenic threats that vary on a vertical gradient. We highlight the critical next steps toward incorporating vertical movement into global management and monitoring strategies for elasmobranchs, emphasizing the need to address geographic and taxonomic biases in deployments and to concurrently consider both horizontal and vertical movements.Bertarelli FoundationResearch EnglandMoore FoundationPackard FoundationInstituto Politecnico NacionalDarwin InitiativeGeorgia AquariumRolex Awards for EnterpriseWhitley Fund for Natur

    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1.

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    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field

    Complicated Disease and Response to Initial Therapy Predicts Early Surgery in Paediatric Crohn's Disease: Results From the Porto Group GROWTH Study

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    Introduction: The ability to predict risk for poor outcomes in Crohn's disease [CD] would enable early treatment intensification. We aimed to identify children with CD with complications at baseline and throughout the study period who are at risk for surgery 2 years from diagnosis. Methods: Newly diagnosed children with CD were enrolled into a prospective, multicentre inception cohort. Disease characteristics and serological markers were obtained at baseline and week 12 thereafter. Outcome data including disease activity, therapies, complications and need for surgery were collected until the end of 104 weeks. A chi-square automatic interaction detection [CHAID] algorithm was used to develop a prediction model for early surgery. Results: Of 285 children enrolled, 31 [10.9%] required surgery within 2 years. Multivariate analysis identified stricturing disease at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 5.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-13.67 [p = 0.001]), and Paediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index [PCDAI] >10 at week 12 (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10 [p = 0.005]) as key predictors for early surgery. CHAID demonstrated that absence of strictures at diagnosis [7.6%], corticosteroid-free remission at week 12 [4.1%] and early immunomodulator therapy [0.8%] were associated with the lowest risk of surgery, while stricturing disease at diagnosis [27.1%, p < 0.001] or elevated PCDAI at week 12 [16.7%, p = 0.014] had an increased risk of surgery at follow-up. Anti-OmpC status further stratified high-risk patients. Discussion: A risk algorithm using clinical and serological variables at diagnosis and week 12 can categorize patients into high- and low-risk groups from diagnosis

    The effectiveness of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures in the offspring: an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    BACKGROUND: The potential role of ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy on subsequent risk of obesity outcomes in the offspring is not clear and there is a need to synthesise this evidence. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including the most recent studies, was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures, e.g. BMI, body weight, fat mass in offspring. METHODS: Included RCTs had a minimum of 1-month follow-up post-partum. The search included CENTRAL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, WHO's International Clinical Trials Reg., E-theses and Web of Science databases. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs, from ten unique trials, (3644 children) examined the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA maternal supplementation during pregnancy on the development of obesity outcomes in offspring. There were heterogeneities between the trials in terms of their sample, type and duration of intervention and follow-up. Pooled estimates did not show an association between prenatal intake of fatty acids and obesity measures in offspring. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that maternal supplementation with ω-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy does not have a beneficial effect on obesity risk. Due to the high heterogeneity between studies along with small sample sizes and high rates of attrition, the effects of ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy for prevention of childhood obesity in the long-term remains unclear. Large high-quality RCTs are needed that are designed specifically to examine the effect of prenatal intake of fatty acids for prevention of childhood obesity. There is also a need to determine specific sub-groups in the population that might get a greater benefit and whether different ω-3 LCPUFA, i.e. eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. docosahexanoic (DHA) acids might potentially have different effects

    Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis via a redox-dependent mechanism in vivo

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    Metformin, the universal first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, exerts its therapeutic glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the primary molecular mechanism of this biguanide remains unclear, though it has been suggested to act, at least partially, by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. Here we show that clinically relevant concentrations of plasma metformin achieved by acute intravenous, acute intraportal or chronic oral administration in awake normal and diabetic rats inhibit gluconeogenesis from lactate and glycerol but not from pyruvate and alanine, implicating an increased cytosolic redox state in mediating metformin’s antihyperglycemic effect. All of these effects occurred independently of complex I inhibition, evidenced by unaltered hepatic energy charge and citrate synthase flux. Normalizing the cytosolic redox state by infusion of methylene blue or substrates that contribute to gluconeogenesis independently of the cytosolic redox state abrogated metformin-mediated inhibition of gluconeogenesis in vivo. Additionally, in mice expressing constitutively active acetyl-CoA carboxylase, metformin acutely decreased hepatic glucose production and increased the hepatic cytosolic redox state without altering hepatic triglyceride content or gluconeogenic enzyme expression. These studies demonstrate that metformin, at clinically relevant plasma concentrations, inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis in a redox-dependent manner independently of reductions in citrate synthase flux, hepatic nucleotide concentrations, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, or gluconeogenic enzyme protein expression