101 research outputs found

    Bacterial Power: An Alternative Energy Source

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    The demand for energy and the limited supply of fossil fuels and their impact in the environment have required the development of alternative energy sources. Among the next generation of energy sources, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have emerged as a promising technology due to their ability to recover energy from wastewaters in the form of electricity using electroactive microorganisms as catalysts. Among the various factors that affect power generation performance in MFCs, the efficiency of extracellular electron transfer (EET) is one of the most important. Several enzymes, specifically multiheme cytochromes, have been implicated in this process although the electron transfer chain organization remains to be fully understood. In this chapter, we review in detail the mechanisms that support EET from electroactive microorganisms to the anode in MFCs. We focus on the model organism Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, due to the existence of an extensive molecular characterization of its EET processes. The recent developments in the characterization of the multiheme cytochromes involved in these mechanisms will also be reviewed.authorsversionpublishe

    Treatment of synthetic textile wastewater containing dye mixtures with microcosms

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    The aim was to assess the ability of microcosms (laboratory-scale shallow ponds) as a post polishing stage for the remediation of artificial textile wastewater comprising two commercial dyes (basic red 46 (BR46) and reactive blue 198 (RB198)) as a mixture. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of Lemna minor L. (common duckweed) on the water quality outflows; the elimination of dye mixtures, organic matter, and nutrients; and the impact of synthetic textile wastewater comprising dye mixtures on the L. minor plant growth. Three mixtures were prepared providing a total dye concentration of 10 mg/l. Findings showed that the planted simulated ponds possess a significant (p < 0.05) potential for improving the outflow characteristics and eliminate dyes, ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N), and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) in all mixtures compared with the corresponding unplanted ponds. The removal of mixed dyes in planted ponds was mainly due to phyto-transformation and adsorption of BR46 with complete aromatic amine mineralisation. For ponds containing 2 mg/l of RB198 and 8 mg/l of BR46, removals were around 53%, which was significantly higher than those for other mixtures: 5 mg/l of RB198 and 5 mg/l of BR46 and 8 mg/l of RB198 and 2 mg/l of BR46 achieved only 41 and 26% removals, respectively. Dye mixtures stopped the growth of L. minor, and the presence of artificial wastewater reduced their development

    Multidimensional monitoring of anaerobic/aerobic azo dye based wastewater treatments by hyphenated UPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-Q-TOF-MS techniques

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    Sulfonated reactive azo dyes, such as Reactive Orange 107, are extensively used in textile industries. Conventional wastewater treatment systems are incapable of degrading and decolorizing reactive azo dyes completely from effluents, because of their stability and resistance to aerobic biodegradation. However, reactive azo dyes are degradable under anaerobic conditions by releasing toxic aromatic amines. To clarify reaction mechanisms and the present toxicity, the hydrolyzed Reactive Orange 107 was treated in anaerobic-aerobic two-step batch experiments. Sulfonated transformation products were identified employing coupled ICP-MS and Q-TOF-MS measurements. Suspected screening lists were generated using the EAWAG-BBD. The toxicity of the reactor content was determined utilizing online measurements of the inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. The OCHEM web platform for environmental modeling was instrumental in the estimations of the environmental impact of generated transformation products

    The role of riboflavin in decolourisation of Congo red and bioelectricity production using Shewanella oneidensis-MR1 under MFC and non-MFC conditions

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    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria can exchange electrons extracellularly and hold great promise for their use in simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity production. This study investigated the role of riboflavin, an electron carrier, in the decolourisation of Congo red in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism. The contribution of the membrane-bound protein MtrC to the decolourisation process was also investigated. Within the range of riboflavin concentrations tested, 20 µM was found to be the best with >95% of the dye (initial concentration 200 mg/L) decolourised in MFCs within 50 h compared to 90% in the case where no riboflavin was added. The corresponding maximum power density was 45 mW/m2. There was no significant difference in the overall decolourisation efficiencies of Shewanela oneidensis MR-1 ΔMtrC mutants compared to the wild type. However, in terms of power production the mutant produced more power (Pmax 76 mW/m2) compared to the wild type (Pmax 46 mW/m2) which was attributed to higher levels of riboflavin secreted in solution. Decolourisation efficiencies in non-MFC systems (anaerobic bottles) were similar to those under MFC systems indicating that electricity generation in MFCs does not impair dye decolourisation efficiencies. The results suggest that riboflavin enhances both decolourisation of dyes and simultaneous electricity production in MFCs

    Continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile veterinary hospital effluent: pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment

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    Source point treatment of effluents with a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), such as hospital wastewater, is a matter of discussion among the scientific community. Fungal treatments have been reported to be successful in degrading this type of pollutants and, therefore, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was applied for the removal of PhACs from veterinary hospital wastewater. Sixty-six percent removal was achieved in a non-sterile batch bioreactor inoculated with T. versicolor pellets. On the other hand, the study of microbial communities by means of DGGE and phylogenetic analyses led us to identify some microbial interactions and helped us moving to a continuous process. PhAC removal efficiency achieved in the fungal treatment operated in non-sterile continuous mode was 44 % after adjusting the C/N ratio with respect to the previously calculated one for sterile treatments. Fungal and bacterial communities in the continuous bioreactors were monitored as well.Authors want to acknowledge the UAB veterinary hospital staff for their kind permission and help for the samplings. This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER (projects CTM2013-48545-C2 and AIB2010PT-00169) and supported by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Groups 2014-SGR-476 and 2014-SGR-291). The Department of Chemical Engineering of the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) is a member of the Xarxa de Referencia en Biotecnologia de la Generalitat de Catalunya. M. Badia-Fabregat and D. Lucas acknowledge the predoctoral grants from UAB and from the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (AP-2010-4926), respectively. The authors also thank the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) Strategic Project PEst-OE/EQB/LA0023/2013, Project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-027462 co-funded by Operational Competitiveness Programme, FEDER, and Project "BioEnv-Biotechnology and Bioengineering for a sustainable world," REF. NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000048, co-funded by Programa Operacional Regional do Norte (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), QREN, FEDER

    Bacterial enzymes and multi-enzymatic systems for cleaning-up dyes from the environment

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    Synthetic dyes are xenobiotic compounds that are being increasingly used in several industries, with special emphasis in the paper, textile and leather industries. Over 100,000 commercial dyes exist today and more than 7 × 105 tons of dyestuff is produced annually, of which 1–1.5 × 105 tons is released into the wastewaters (Rai et al in Crit Rev Environ Sci Tecnhol 35:219–238, 2005). Among these, azo dyes, characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups (–N=N–), and anthraquinonic dyes represent the largest and most versatile groups

    Biological decolorization of xanthene dyes by anaerobic granular biomass

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    Biodegradation of a xanthene dyes was investigated for the first time using anaerobic granular sludge. On a first screening, biomass was able to decolorize, at different extents, six azo dye solutions: acid orange 7, direct black 19, direct blue 71, mordant yellow 10, reactive red 2 and reactive red 120 and two xanthene dyes—Erythrosine B and Eosin Y. Biomass concentration, type of electron donor, induction of biomass with dye and mediation with activated carbon (AC) were variables studied for Erythrosine B (Ery) as model dye. Maximum color removal efficiency was achieved with 4.71 g VSS L−1, while the process rates were independent of the biomass concentration above 1.89 g VSS L−1. No considerable effects were observed when different substrates were used as electron donors (VFA, glucose or lactose). Addition of Ery in the incubation period of biomass led to a fivefold increase of the decolorization rate. The rate of Ery decolorization almost duplicated in the presence of commercial AC (0.1 g L−1 AC0). Using different modified AC samples (from the treatment of AC0), a threefold higher rate was obtained with the most basic one, \textAC\textH2ACH2, as compared with non-mediated reaction. Higher rates were obtained at pH 6.0. Chemical reduction using Na2S confirmed the recalcitrant nature of this dye. The results attest that decolorization of Ery is essentially due to enzymatic and adsorption phenomena.This work was supported by the PTDC/AMB/69335/2006 project grants (Fundacao para a Ciencia e Technologia, FCT, Portugal), BRAIN project (ID 6681, European Social Found and Romanian Government and the grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0559, Contract 265/2011

    Decolorization and partial mineralization of a polyazo dye by Bacillus firmus immobilized within tubular polymeric gel

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    The degradation of C.I. Direct red 80, a polyazo dye, was investigated using Bacillus firmus immobilized by entrapment in tubular polymeric gel. This bacterial strain was able to completely decolorize 50 mg/L of C.I. Direct red 80 under anoxic conditions within 12 h and also degrade the reaction intermediates (aromatic amines) during the subsequent 12 h under aerobic conditions. The tubular gel harboring the immobilized cells consisted of anoxic and aerobic regions integrated in a single unit which was ideal for azo dye degradation studies. Results obtained show that effective dye decolorization (97.8%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction (91.7%) and total aromatic amines removal were obtained in 15 h with the immobilized bacterial cell system whereas for the free cells, a hydraulic residence time of 24 h was required for an equivalent performance in a sequential anoxic and aerobic process. Repeated-batch experiments indicate the immobilized cells could decolorize C.I. Direct red 80 and reduce medium COD in five successive batch runs with enhanced activity obtained after each consecutive run, thus suggesting its stability and potential for repeated use in wastewater treatment. UV–visible spectrophotometry and HPLC analysis were used to confirm the partial mineralization of the dye. Data from this study could be used as a reference for the development of effective industrial scale biotechnological process for the removal of dyes and their metabolites in textile wastewater
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