407 research outputs found

    A psychometric appraisal of positive psychology outcome measures in use with carers of people living with dementia: a systematic review

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    OBJECTIVES: This review aimed (i) to identify all positive psychology measures in use with family carers and (ii) to determine their psychometric properties. DESIGN: Literature searches were made in Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science. The identified measures were then subjected to analysis via an established quality appraisal tool. RESULTS: Twenty-five instruments representing the positive psychology constructs of resilience, self-efficacy, and positive aspects to caregiving were found. Two reviewers independently evaluated the measures using the quality appraisal tool. The Gain in Alzheimer Care Instrument, the Resilience Scale, and the Caregiver Efficacy Scale were found to be the highest scoring measures within their respective constructs. CONCLUSIONS: Although some robust instruments were identified, there were numerous examples of important psychometric properties not being evidenced in development papers. Future researchers and clinicians should administer evidence-based outcome measures with adequate psychometric properties representing positive and negative constructs to obtain a comprehensive picture of a person's well-being

    The experiences of those affected by parental young onset dementia: A qualitative systematic literature review

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    Aim: To develop understanding of the lived experiences of children of people living with young onset dementia, defined as individuals both under and over the age of 18 years whose parent was diagnosed with dementia before the age of 65 years. Method: A critical appraisal and thematic synthesis of the available qualitative literature regarding the lived experience of individuals whose parent has a diagnosis of young onset dementia. A threestage approach for conducing thematic synthesis was followed. Results: 15 articles were included in the review. Four analytical themes and 11 subthemes were found. The analytical themes were ‘making sense of dementia’, ‘impact of dementia’, ‘coping’ and ‘support’. Conclusions: The experiences of those affected by parental young onset dementia vary widely. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of young onset dementia by professionals and the public, and a scarcity of appropriate support. This has clinical implications for professionals working with families affected by young onset dementia, in particular with regards to service design and delivery

    Mattress and pillow for prone positioning for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea

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    Conclusion: The new mattress and pillow for prone positioning (MPP) is efficient in reducing the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) in most patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), with satisfactory compliance. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the prone body and head sleep position on severity of disease in patients with OSA after 4 weeks of adaptation to a mattress and pillow facilitating prone positioning. Methods: Fourteen patients with mild to severe OSA, 11 men and 3 women with a mean AHI of 26 (min, 6; max, 53) and mean ODI of 21 (min, 6; max, 51) were evaluated. Two polysomnographic (PSG) studies were performed. The first PSG study was without any treatment and the second was after 4 weeks of adaptation to the MPP for prone positioning of the body and the head. Results: Mean AHI and ODI decreased from 26 and 21 to 8 and 7, respectively (p 4 h per night during the 4-week study.Acta Otolaryngologica Foundation, Swede

    Position paper on the use of mandibular advancement devices in adults with sleep-related breathing disorders: A position paper of the German Society of Dental Sleep Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft Zahnaerztliche Schlafmedizin, DGZS)

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    Custom-made mandibular advancement devices are an effective treatment option for snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Evidence-based data indicates their efficacy, and international sleep societies recommend oral appliance (OA) therapy for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. The following position paper by the German Society of Dental Sleep Medicine (DGZS) is to guide the interdisciplinary team (sleep physician and sleep disorder dentist) in detail when to prescribe oral appliances. This position paper supports the responsible use of OA as an effective treatment option for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. The paper advises of proper indication regarding OSA severity, body mass index (BMI), and dentition. It emphasizes the interdisciplinary approach of oral appliance therapy and suggests treatment under the guidance of dentists trained in dental sleep medicine

    Mario Bunge and the Current Revival of Causal Realism

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    Mario Bunge’s Causality and Modern Science is arguably one of the best treatments of the causal realist tradition ever to have been written, one that defends the place of causality as a category in the conceptual framework of modern science. And yet in the current revival of causal realism in contemporary metaphysics, there is very little awareness of Bunge’s work. This paper seeks to remedy this, by highlighting one particular criticism Bunge levels at the Aristotelian view of causation and illustrating its relevance for contemporary powers-based accounts. Roughly, the Aristotelian view depicts interactions between objects as involving a unidirectional exertion of influence of one object upon another. This idea of unidirectional action is central to the Aristotelian distinction between active and passive powers, and its corresponding distinction between active and passive objects. As Bunge points out, modern physics does not recognise the existence of any unidirectional actions at all; all influence comes in the form of reciprocal action, or interaction. If this is right, all notions deriving from or influenced by the idea of unidirectional actions—such as the concept of mutual manifestation and reciprocal disposition partners—risk being false by the same measure. Bunge drew the conclusion that the Aristotelian view is ontologically inadequate, but still advocated its use as the most useful approximation available in science. He considered, but ultimately rejected the possibility of a modified view of causation built on reciprocal action, because, in his view, it couldn’t account for the productivity of causation. Bunge’s critique of this particular aspect of the Aristotelian view cannot be overlooked in contemporary metaphysics, but it is possible to construe a modified view of causation that takes the reciprocity of interactions seriously without loss of productivity.Peer reviewe

    Accuracy and precision of a new, portable, handheld blood gas analyzer, the IRMA®

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    Objective. The accuracy and precision of the new IRMA® (Immediate Response Mobile Analysis System, Diametrics, Inc.®, St. Paul, MN) handheld blood gas analyzer was compared with that of two benchtop blood gas analyzers. The IRMA consists of a notebook-sized machine and disposable cartridges, each containing a pH, a CO 2 and an O 2 electrode, and provides bedside (point-of-care) blood gas analysis. Methods. A total of 172 samples (arterial and mined venous) were obtained from 25 informed, consenting patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The pH, PCO 2 and PO 2 of each sample was determined on four blood gas analyzers: NOVA Statlabs Profile 5 (NOVA Biomedical, Waltham, MA), the ABL-50 (Radiometer, West Lake, OH), and two IRMA machines. Linear regression and bias ± precision were determined, comparing each of the analyzers with the NOVA. Results. All three machines showed a similar, high degree of correlation with the NOVA for pH, PCO 2 , and PO 2 . The bias and precision of the IRMA machines compared with the NOVA was similar to that of the ABL compared with the NOVA for pH (NOVA:ABL −0.005 ± 0.011; NOVA: IRMA 1 = 0.0026 ± 0.025; NOVA: IRMA 2 = 0.0021 ± 0.025), for PCO 2 (NOVA:ABL = −1.4 ± 1.3 mmHg; NOVA: IRMA 1 = −1.3 ± 1.9 mmHg; NOVA: IRMA 2 = −1.2 ± 2.1 mmHg) and PO 2 (NOVA:ABL = 3.6 ± 21.1 mmHg; NOVA: IRMA 1 = 3.4 = 19.9 mmHg; NOVA: IRMA 2 = 6.3 ± 20.9 mmHg). The bias found for pH, PCO 2 , and PO 2 was not affected by extremes of temperature (range 25.5–40°C) or hematocrit (range 11–44%) for any machine. Conclusions. The new technology incorporated in the IRMA blood gas analyzer provides results with an accuracy that is similar to that of benchtop analyzers, but with all of the advantages of point-of-care analysis.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/43058/1/10877_2005_Article_BF02221753.pd

    Efficiency in a forced contribution threshold public good game

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    We contrast and compare three ways of predicting efficiency in a forced contribution threshold public good game. The three alternatives are based on ordinal potential, quantal response and impulse balance theory. We report an experiment designed to test the respective predictions and find that impulse balance gives the best predictions. A simple expression detailing when enforced contributions result in high or low efficiency is provided

    Characterization of In Vivo Keratin 19 Phosphorylation on Tyrosine-391

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    Keratin polypeptide 19 (K19) is a type I intermediate filament protein that is expressed in stratified and simple-type epithelia. Although K19 is known to be phosphorylated on tyrosine residue(s), conclusive site-specific characterization of these residue(s) and identification potential kinases that may be involved has not been reported.In this study, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches were undertaken in order to identify and characterize K19 tyrosine phosphorylation. Upon treatment with pervanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, human K19 (hK19) was phosphorylated on tyrosine 391, located in the 'tail' domain of the protein. K19 Y391 phosphorylation was confirmed using site-directed mutagenesis and cell transfection coupled with the generation of a K19 phospho (p)-Y391-specific rabbit antibody. The antibody also recognized mouse phospho-K19 (K19 pY394). This tyrosine residue is not phosphorylated under basal conditions, but becomes phosphorylated in the presence of Src kinase in vitro and in cells expressing constitutively-active Src. Pervanadate treatment in vivo resulted in phosphorylation of K19 Y394 and Y391 in colonic epithelial cells of non-transgenic mice and hK19-overexpressing mice, respectively.Human K19 tyrosine 391 is phosphorylated, potentially by Src kinase, and is the first well-defined tyrosine phosphorylation site of any keratin protein. The lack of detection of K19 pY391 in the absence of tyrosine phosphatase inhibition suggests that its phosphorylation is highly dynamic

    Cognitive behavioral therapy of socially phobic children focusing on cognition: a randomised wait-list control study

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    BACKGROUND: Although literature provides support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as an efficacious intervention for social phobia, more research is needed to improve treatments for children. METHODS: Forty four Caucasian children (ages 8-14) meeting diagnostic criteria of social phobia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; APA, 1994) were randomly allocated to either a newly developed CBT program focusing on cognition according to the model of Clark and Wells (n = 21) or a wait-list control group (n = 23). The primary outcome measure was clinical improvement. Secondary outcomes included improvements in anxiety coping, dysfunctional cognitions, interaction frequency and comorbid symptoms. Outcome measures included child report and clinican completed measures as well as a diagnostic interview. RESULTS: Significant differences between treatment participants (4 dropouts) and controls (2 dropouts) were observed at post test on the German version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Furthermore, in the treatment group, significantly more children were free of diagnosis than in wait-list group at post-test. Additional child completed and clinician completed measures support the results. DISCUSSION: The study is a first step towards investigating whether CBT focusing on cognition is efficacious in treating children with social phobia. Future research will need to compare this treatment to an active treatment group. There remain the questions of whether the effect of the treatment is specific to the disorder and whether the underlying theoretical model is adequate. CONCLUSION: Preliminary support is provided for the efficacy of the cognitive behavioral treatment focusing on cognition in socially phobic children. Active comparators should be established with other evidence-based CBT programs for anxiety disorders, which differ significantly in their dosage and type of cognitive interventions from those of the manual under evaluation (e.g. Coping Cat)