1,874 research outputs found

    Constraining models for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with a novel combined analysis of arrival directions, spectrum, and composition data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    Dietary intakes and daily distribution patterns of macronutrients in youth soccer players

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    IntroductionThere has been an abundance of dietary analysis research conducted on adult male soccer players, while studies on youth players are lacking. Furthermore, the daily distribution of energy and macronutrient intake throughout the day has been reported to influence training adaptations, but this is often not considered in the literature. This study aims to quantify daily energy and macronutrient intake and assess their distribution over 5 days, and compare daily energy intakes and predicted daily energy expenditure in under-16 male soccer players.MethodsThe sample included 25 soccer participants aged 14.8‚Äď15.7 years. Five-day self-reported food diaries were used to record the food/drink consumption. Intake was analyzed for total daily energy, macronutrient intakes, and distribution among meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks). Daily energy expenditure was predicted by resting energy expenditure and physical activity levels developed for youth sports participants.ResultsThe mean total energy intake was 1,928‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ388‚ÄČkcal‚ąôday‚ąí1, whereas the estimated daily energy expenditure was 3,568‚ÄČkcal‚ąôday‚ąí1. Relative daily protein intakes were lower at breakfast, morning snack, afternoon snack, and night snack compared to lunch and dinner.DiscussionYouth soccer players do not appear to meet energy requirements and daily CHO guidelines. Fluctuations in protein intake throughout the day were noted and may influence training adaptations (i.e., muscle protein synthesis and recovery)

    Vaccine Preventable Disease Seroprevalence in a Nationwide Assessment of Timor-Leste (VASINA-TL): study protocol for a population-representative cross-sectional serosurvey

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    Introduction Historic disruption in health infrastructure combined with data from a recent vaccine coverage survey suggests there are likely significant immunity gaps to vaccine preventable diseases and high risk of outbreaks in Timor-Leste. Community-based serological surveillance is an important tool to augment understanding of population-level immunity achieved through vaccine coverage and/or derived from prior infection.Methods and analysis This national population-representative serosurvey will take a three-stage cluster sample and aims to include 5600 individuals above 1‚ÄČyear of age. Serum samples will be collected by phlebotomy and analysed for measles IgG, rubella IgG, SARS-CoV-2 antispike protein IgG, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antigen using commercially available chemiluminescent immunoassays or ELISA. In addition to crude prevalence estimates and to account for differences in Timor-Leste‚Äôs age structure, stratified age-standardised prevalence estimates will be calculated, using Asia in 2013 as the standard population. Additionally, this survey will derive a national asset of serum and dried blood spot samples which can be used for further investigation of infectious disease seroepidemiology and/or validation of existing and novel serological assays for infectious diseases.Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Research Ethics and Technical Committee of the Instituto Nacional da Sa√ļde, Timor-Leste and the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Northern Territory Department of Health and Menzies School of Health Research, Australia. Co-designing this study with Timor-Leste‚Äôs Ministry-of-Health and other relevant partner organisations will allow immediate translation of findings into public health policy, which may include changes to routine immunisation service delivery and/or plans for supplementary immunisation activities

    Co-creation of educational commons spaces to reverse inequalities: project SMOOTH and the Children's Club

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    This article presents an action-research project from the EU-funded SMOOTH project, which focuses on the potential of Educational Commons to address educational inequalities. The project adopts an emergent paradigm that views spaces for collaboration, content co-creation, socialization, governance, and play as catalysts for reversing inequalities. The action-research, conducted in a disadvantaged non-formal education setting in northern Portugal, involved children aged 8‚Äď10 years old. Over a span of 10 months, the innovative action-research program aimed to achieve several objectives: (1) reversing inequalities faced by vulnerable social groups, (2) strengthening inter-cultural and inter-generational dialogue and social integration, (3) developing essential social and personal skills, and (4) creating smooth spaces of democratic citizenship based on equality, collaboration, sharing, and caring. By understanding the tensions and conflicts that emerge in children's everyday situations, the project sought to build and foster community through embracing differences. This article analyzes the characteristics, behaviors, challenges, and strengths observed during the 30 sessions. The results provide insights into the dimensions of Children as commoners, in terms of sharing and care, cooperation and collective creativity and active citizenship. This research contributes to the exploration of Educational Commons as a means to promote equity and transform educational contexts

    The UHECR dipole and quadrupole in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors

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    The sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are still unknown, but assuming standard physics, they are expected to lie within a few hundred megaparsecs from us. Indeed, over cosmological distances cosmic rays lose energy to interactions with background photons, at a rate depending on their mass number and energy and properties of photonuclear interactions and photon backgrounds. The universe is not homogeneous at such scales, hence the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is expected to reflect the inhomogeneities in the distribution of galaxies; the shorter the energy loss lengths, the stronger the expected anisotropies. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields can blur and distort the picture, but the magnitudes of the largest-scale anisotropies, namely the dipole and quadrupole moments, are the most robust to their effects. Measuring them with no bias regardless of any higher-order multipoles is not possible except with full-sky coverage. In this work, we achieve this in three energy ranges (approximately 8--16 EeV, 16--32 EeV, and 32--‚ąě EeV) by combining surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and at the Telescope Array (TA) until 2019, before the completion of the upgrades of the arrays with new scintillator detectors. We find that the full-sky coverage achieved by combining Auger and TA data reduces the uncertainties on the north-south components of the dipole and quadrupole in half compared to Auger-only results

    A Novel Tool for the Absolute End-to-End Calibration of Fluorescence Telescopes -The XY-Scanner

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    Radio Measurements of the Depth of Air-Shower Maximum at the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    International audienceThe Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), part of the Pierre Auger Observatory, is currently the largest array of radio antenna stations deployed for the detection of cosmic rays, spanning an area of 1717 km2^2 with 153 radio stations. It detects the radio emission of extensive air showers produced by cosmic rays in the 30‚ąí8030-80 MHz band. Here, we report the AERA measurements of the depth of the shower maximum (XmaxX_\text{max}), a probe for mass composition, at cosmic-ray energies between 1017.510^{17.5} to 1018.810^{18.8} eV, which show agreement with earlier measurements with the fluorescence technique at the Pierre Auger Observatory. We show advancements in the method for radio XmaxX_\text{max} reconstruction by comparison to dedicated sets of CORSIKA/CoREAS air-shower simulations, including steps of reconstruction-bias identification and correction, which is of particular importance for irregular or sparse radio arrays. Using the largest set of radio air-shower measurements to date, we show the radio XmaxX_\text{max} resolution as a function of energy, reaching a resolution better than 1515 g cm‚ąí2^{-2} at the highest energies, demonstrating that radio XmaxX_\text{max} measurements are competitive with the established high-precision fluorescence technique. In addition, we developed a procedure for performing an extensive data-driven study of systematic uncertainties, including the effects of acceptance bias, reconstruction bias, and the investigation of possible residual biases. These results have been cross-checked with air showers measured independently with both the radio and fluorescence techniques, a setup unique to the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Plant defences and spider-mite web affect host plant choice and performance of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

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    Herbivores select host plants depending on plant quality and the presence of predators and competitors. Competing herbivores change host plant quantity through consumption, but they can also change plant quality through induction of plant defences, and this affects the performance of herbivores that arrive later on the plant. Some herbivores, such as the spider mite Tetranychus evansi, do not induce, but suppress plant defences, and later-arriving herbivores can profit from this suppression. It has been suggested that the dense web produced by this spider mite serves to prevent other herbivores to settle on the plant and benefit from the suppressed defences. Here, we confirmed this by studying the preference and performance of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a generalist herbivorous pest. To disentangle the effects through changes in plant defences from the effects of spider-mite web, we included treatments with a strain of the closely-related web-producing spider mite T. urticae, which induces plant defences. Whiteflies did perform worse on plants with defences induced by T. urticae, but, in contrast to other herbivores, did not perform better on plants with defences suppressed by T. evansi. Moreover, the web of both spider mites reduced the juvenile survival of whiteflies, and whiteflies avoided plants that were covered with web. Hence, whitefly performance was not only affected by plant quality and induced plant defences, but also through the web produced by spider mites, which thus serves to protect against potential competitors, especially when these could profit from the suppression of plant defences by the mites

    UHECR arrival directions in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors and nearby galaxies

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    The distribution of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray arrival directions appears to be nearly isotropic except for a dipole moment of order 6√ó(E/10¬†EeV)6 \times (E/10~\mathrm{EeV}) per cent. Nonetheless, at the highest energies, as the number of possible candidate sources within the propagation horizon and the magnetic deflections both shrink, smaller-scale anisotropies might be expected to emerge. On the other hand, the flux suppression reduces the statistics available for searching for such anisotropies. In this work, we consider two different lists of candidate sources: a sample of nearby starburst galaxies and the 2MRS catalog tracing stellar mass within 250 Mpc. We combine surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and the Telescope Array until 2019, and use them to test models in which UHECRs comprise an isotropic background and a foreground originating from the candidate sources and randomly deflected by magnetic fields. The free parameters of these models are the energy threshold, the signal fraction, and the search angular scale. We find a correlation between the arrival directions of 11.8%‚ąí3.1%+5.0%11.8\%_{-3.1\%}^{+5.0\%} of cosmic rays detected with E‚Č•38¬†EeVE \ge 38~\mathrm{EeV} by Auger or with E‚Č≥49¬†EeVE \gtrsim 49~\mathrm{EeV} by TA and the position of nearby starburst galaxies on a 15.5‚ąė‚ąí3.2‚ąė+5.3‚ąė{15.5^\circ}_{-3.2^\circ}^{+5.3^\circ} angular scale, with a 4.2ŌÉ post-trial significance, as well as a weaker correlation with the overall galaxy distribution

    AugerPrime Surface Detector Electronics

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    International audienceOperating since 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has led to major advances in our understanding of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The latest findings have revealed new insights that led to the upgrade of the Observatory, with the primary goal of obtaining information on the primary mass of the most energetic cosmic rays on a shower-by-shower basis. In the framework of the upgrade, called AugerPrime, the 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors of the surface array are equipped with plastic scintillators and radio antennas, allowing us to enhance the composition sensitivity. To accommodate new detectors and to increase experimental capabilities, the electronics is also upgraded. This includes better timing with up-to-date GPS receivers, higher sampling frequency, increased dynamic range, and more powerful local processing of the data. In this paper, the design characteristics of the new electronics and the enhanced dynamic range will be described. The manufacturing and test processes will be outlined and the test results will be discussed. The calibration of the SD detector and various performance parameters obtained from the analysis of the first commissioning data will also be presented
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