495 research outputs found

    Contribution of coal combustion to black carbon: coupling tracers with the aethalometer model

    No full text
    Black carbon (BC) aerosol characteristics have been analysed from January 2016 to March 2017 in an urban background area (León, Spain), located in a coal-mining region, where this fuel is commonly used. The monthly and seasonal variations of BC and source contributions were examined. The mean equivalent BC concentration (eBC) during cold and warm months were 1.0±0.5 and 0.6±0.2 μg m-3, respectively. eBC can be further divided into eBCff (eBC from liquid fossil fuel) and eBCbb+cc (eBC from biomass burning plus coal combustion), with mean annual values of 0.6±0.3 and 0.3±0.3 μg m 3 (cold months) and 0.4±0.2 μg m 3 and 0.1±0.1 μg m 3 (warm months), respectively. The eBC obtained from the aethalometer and the elemental carbon (EC) quantified through a Thermal Optical Transmittance method presented a significant strong positive correlation in both warm (r=0.82) and cold (r=0.88) periods. A mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of 4.46±0.16 between two techniques has been obtained. In the cold period, a multilinear regression model to decouple eBCbb from eBCcc was established (r2=0.85) based on two tracers: arsenic for coal combustion and potassium for biomass burning. The model application enabled us to distinguish the contributions to eBCbb+cc (as a function of the variance explained by the tracers) in the cold period: 74% from biomass burning and 26% from coal combustion. The highest eBCcc concentration was estimated for December 2016 and January 2017 (0.18 μg m 3). This result was supported by the Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE), which showed the maximum value in January 2017 (1.43±0.37) due to the high biomass burning and coal combustion contributions.publishe

    Cross-species oncogenomics offers insight into human muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Get PDF
    Background: In humans, muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is highly aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. With a high mutation load and large number of altered genes, strategies to delineate key driver events are necessary. Dogs and cats develop urothelial carcinoma (UC) with histological and clinical similarities to human MIBC. Cattle that graze on bracken fern also develop UC, associated with exposure to the carcinogen ptaquiloside. These species may represent relevant animal models of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced UC that can provide insight into human MIBC. Results: Whole-exome sequencing of domestic canine (n = 87) and feline (n = 23) UC, and comparative analysis with human MIBC reveals a lower mutation rate in animal cases and the absence of APOBEC mutational signatures. A convergence of driver genes (ARID1A, KDM6A, TP53, FAT1, and NRAS) is discovered, along with common focally amplified and deleted genes involved in regulation of the cell cycle and chromatin remodelling. We identify mismatch repair deficiency in a subset of canine and feline UCs with biallelic inactivation of MSH2. Bovine UC (n = 8) is distinctly different; we identify novel mutational signatures which are recapitulated in vitro in human urinary bladder UC cells treated with bracken fern extracts or purified ptaquiloside. Conclusion: Canine and feline urinary bladder UC represent relevant models of MIBC in humans, and cross-species analysis can identify evolutionarily conserved driver genes. We characterize mutational signatures in bovine UC associated with bracken fern and ptaquiloside exposure, a human-linked cancer exposure. Our work demonstrates the relevance of cross-species comparative analysis in understanding both human and animal UC

    Serum anti-GM2 and anti-GalNAc-GD1a IgG antibodies are biomarkers for acute canine polyradiculoneuritis

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVES: A previous single-country pilot study indicated serum anti-GM2 and anti-GA1 anti-glycolipid antibodies as potential biomarkers for acute canine polyradiculoneuritis. This study aims to validate these findings in a large geographically heterogenous cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera from 175 dogs clinically diagnosed with acute canine polyradiculoneuritis, 112 dogs with other peripheral nerve, cranial nerve or neuromuscular disorders and 226 neurologically normal dogs were screened for anti-glycolipid antibodies against 11 common glycolipid targets to determine the immunoglobulin G anti-glycolipid antibodies with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for acute canine polyradiculoneuritis. RESULTS: Anti-GM2 anti-glycolipid antibodies reached the highest combined sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity: 65.1%, 95% confidence interval 57.6 to 72.2%; specificity: 90.2%, 95% confidence interval 83.1 to 95.0%), followed by anti-GalNAc-GD1a anti-glycolipid antibodies (sensitivity: 61.7%, 95% confidence interval 54.1 to 68.9%; specificity: 89.3%, 95% confidence interval 82.0 to 94.3%) and these anti-glycolipid antibodies were frequently present concomitantly. Anti-GA1 anti-glycolipid antibodies were detected in both acute canine polyradiculoneuritis and control animals. Both for anti-GM2 and anti-GalNAc-GD1a anti-glycolipid antibodies, sex was found a significantly associated factor with a female to male odds ratio of 2.55 (1.27 to 5.31) and 3.00 (1.22 to 7.89), respectively. Anti-GalNAc-GD1a anti-glycolipid antibodies were more commonly observed in dogs unable to walk (OR 4.56, 1.56 to 14.87). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Anti-GM2 and anti-GalNAc-GD1a immunoglobulin G anti-glycolipid antibodies represent serum biomarkers for acute canine polyradiculoneuritis.This study was funded by PetSavers, the charitable division of the BSAVA, and by The Wellcome Trust (Grants 092805 and 202789 awarded to HJW).https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/17485827Companion Animal Clinical Studie

    Serum anti-GM2 and anti-GalNAc-GD1a IgG antibodies are biomarkers for acute canine polyradiculoneuritis

    Get PDF
    Objectives: A previous single-country pilot study indicated serum anti-GM2 and anti-GA1 anti-glycolipid antibodies as potential biomarkers for acute canine polyradiculoneuritis. This study aims to validate these findings in a large geographically heterogenous cohort. Materials and Methods: Sera from 175 dogs clinically diagnosed with acute canine polyradiculoneuritis, 112 dogs with other peripheral nerve, cranial nerve or neuromuscular disorders and 226 neurologically normal dogs were screened for anti-glycolipid antibodies against 11 common glycolipid targets to determine the immunoglobulin G anti-glycolipid antibodies with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for acute canine polyradiculoneuritis. Results: Anti-GM2 anti-glycolipid antibodies reached the highest combined sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity: 65.1%, 95% confidence interval 57.6 to 72.2%; specificity: 90.2%, 95% confidence interval 83.1 to 95.0%), followed by anti-GalNAc-GD1a anti-glycolipid antibodies (sensitivity: 61.7%, 95% confidence interval 54.1 to 68.9%; specificity: 89.3%, 95% confidence interval 82.0 to 94.3%) and these anti-glycolipid antibodies were frequently present concomitantly. Anti-GA1 anti-glycolipid antibodies were detected in both acute canine polyradiculoneuritis and control animals. Both for anti-GM2 and anti-GalNAc-GD1a anti-glycolipid antibodies, sex was found a significantly associated factor with a female to male odds ratio of 2.55 (P=0.0096) and 3.00 (P=0.0198), respectively. Anti-GalNAc-GD1a anti-glycolipid antibodies were more commonly observed in dogs unable to walk (odds ratio 4.56; P=0.0076). Clinical Significance: Anti-GM2 and anti-GalNAc-GD1a immunoglobulin G anti-glycolipid antibodies represent serum biomarkers for acute canine polyradiculoneuritis
    corecore