1,253 research outputs found

    Global, regional, and national incidence of six major immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: findings from the global burden of disease study 2019Research in context

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    Summary: Background: The causes for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are diverse and the incidence trends of IMIDs from specific causes are rarely studied. The study aims to investigate the pattern and trend of IMIDs from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We collected detailed information on six major causes of IMIDs, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, between 1990 and 2019, derived from the Global Burden of Disease study in 2019. The average annual percent change (AAPC) in number of incidents and age standardized incidence rate (ASR) on IMIDs, by sex, age, region, and causes, were calculated to quantify the temporal trends. Findings: In 2019, rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease accounted 1.59%, 36.17%, 54.71%, 0.09%, 6.84%, 0.60% of overall new IMIDs cases, respectively. The ASR of IMIDs showed substantial regional and global variation with the highest in High SDI region, High-income North America, and United States of America. Throughout human lifespan, the age distribution of incident cases from six IMIDs was quite different. Globally, incident cases of IMIDs increased with an AAPC of 0.68 and the ASR decreased with an AAPC of −0.34 from 1990 to 2019. The incident cases increased across six IMIDs, the ASR of rheumatoid arthritis increased (0.21, 95% CI 0.18, 0.25), while the ASR of asthma (AAPC = −0.41), inflammatory bowel disease (AAPC = −0.72), multiple sclerosis (AAPC = −0.26), psoriasis (AAPC = −0.77), and atopic dermatitis (AAPC = −0.15) decreased. The ASR of overall and six individual IMID increased with SDI at regional and global level. Countries with higher ASR in 1990 experienced a more rapid decrease in ASR. Interpretation: The incidence patterns of IMIDs varied considerably across the world. Innovative prevention and integrative management strategy are urgently needed to mitigate the increasing ASR of rheumatoid arthritis and upsurging new cases of other five IMIDs, respectively. Funding: The Global Burden of Disease Study is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The project funded by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital (2022QN38)

    Structure Studies of 13Be^{13}\text{Be} from the 12^{12}Be(d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics on a solid deuteron target

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    The low-lying structure of 13^{13}Be has remained an enigma for decades. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies, large inconsistencies remain. Being both unbound, and one neutron away from 14^{14}Be, the heaviest bound beryllium nucleus, 13^{13}Be is difficult to study through simple reactions with weak radioactive ion beams or more complex reactions with stable-ion beams. Here, we present the results of a study using the 12^{12}Be(d,p)13^{13}Be reaction in inverse kinematics using a 9.5~MeV per nucleon 12^{12}Be beam from the ISAC-II facility. The solid deuteron target of IRIS was used to achieve an increased areal thickness compared to conventional deuterated polyethylene targets. The Q-value spectrum below -4.4~MeV was analyzed using a Bayesian method with GEANT4 simulations. A three-point angular distribution with the same Q-value gate was fit with a mixture of ss- and pp-wave, ss- and dd-wave, or pure pp-wave transfer. The Q-value spectrum was also compared with GEANT simulations obtained using the energies and widths of states reported in four previous works. It was found that our results are incompatible with works that revealed a wide 5/2+5/2^+ resonance but shows better agreement with ones that reported a narrower width.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    Nutritional status of underprivileged indian children and youth with type-1 diabetes - A multicentre study

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    Background: India has the highest number of prevalent type-1 diabetes (T1D) cases in the under-20-year age population. Data on the anthropometry of underprivileged Indian children with T1D are scarce. In economically disadvantaged countries like India, poor growth in patients with T1D is a major concern due to limited accessibility and affordability. Besides, due to the double burden of malnutrition, the prevalence of obesity is increasing mirroring the global trends, which may lead to the development of insulin resistance. Objectives: This study aims to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in Indian children and youth with T1D and to identify the determinants of short stature. Methods: A registry-based cross-sectional analysis of data collected from various centres across India enrolled in the Changing Diabetes in Children (CDiC) programme. Results: We observed that 6.4% were undernourished (3.4% severe undernutrition) and 17.7% (overweight 13.2%) had combined overweight/obesity. 21.2% of participants had short stature (adjusted for mid-parental height) with 7.4% cases of familial short stature. Longer duration of illness and insulin requirement were significant positive predictors of short stature while glycaemic control, insulin regimen and mid-parental height did not have a significant relationship with short stature. Participants on basal-bolus regimen had significantly higher insulin requirements and better glycaemic control than the ones on mixed-split regimen. Conclusion: We report that around one-fifth of children and youth with T1D were overweight/obese and around a fourth were stunted, especially those with longer duration of diabetes and higher insulin requirements. Close monitoring of anthropometric parameters is necessary for all children with T1D to optimize growth and nutrition

    Global, regional, and national incidence of six major immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: findings from the global burden of disease study 2019

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    Background The causes for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are diverse and the incidence trends of IMIDs from specific causes are rarely studied. The study aims to investigate the pattern and trend of IMIDs from 1990 to 2019. Methods We collected detailed information on six major causes of IMIDs, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, between 1990 and 2019, derived from the Global Burden of Disease study in 2019. The average annual percent change (AAPC) in number of incidents and age standardized incidence rate (ASR) on IMIDs, by sex, age, region, and causes, were calculated to quantify the temporal trends. Findings In 2019, rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease accounted 1.59%, 36.17%, 54.71%, 0.09%, 6.84%, 0.60% of overall new IMIDs cases, respectively. The ASR of IMIDs showed substantial regional and global variation with the highest in High SDI region, High-income North America, and United States of America. Throughout human lifespan, the age distribution of incident cases from six IMIDs was quite different. Globally, incident cases of IMIDs increased with an AAPC of 0.68 and the ASR decreased with an AAPC of −0.34 from 1990 to 2019. The incident cases increased across six IMIDs, the ASR of rheumatoid arthritis increased (0.21, 95% CI 0.18, 0.25), while the ASR of asthma (AAPC = −0.41), inflammatory bowel disease (AAPC = −0.72), multiple sclerosis (AAPC = −0.26), psoriasis (AAPC = −0.77), and atopic dermatitis (AAPC = −0.15) decreased. The ASR of overall and six individual IMID increased with SDI at regional and global level. Countries with higher ASR in 1990 experienced a more rapid decrease in ASR. Interpretation The incidence patterns of IMIDs varied considerably across the world. Innovative prevention and integrative management strategy are urgently needed to mitigate the increasing ASR of rheumatoid arthritis and upsurging new cases of other five IMIDs, respectively. Funding The Global Burden of Disease Study is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The project funded by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital (2022QN38)

    Impact of ‘Black Race’ Coefficient in eGFR on Our Community and Medical Education

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    Introduction: The use of race in estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) started a critical national conversation on numerous areas of medicine touched by racism; with a call for removal of race from calculation of eGFR. We scrutinized use of ‘Black race’ coefficient in MDRD eGFR calculation and consequence of its use on our local community in SW Michigan. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of de-identified electronic health record (EHR) data from routine outpatient primary care visits, from 1/1/2019 to 12/31/2019 included variables such as age, race, gender, serum creatinine levels and calculated eGFRs (if any), using Chi-square tests for association and Wald-approximation 95% confidence interval. During the data collection period in 2019, both hospital systems and the outpatient clinic site were all using MDRD. Results: eGFR and associated CKD stage were calculated for 131,863 patients. Chi-square tests found significant differences in rates of CKD stages 3,4 and 5 between ‘Black’ and ‘not Black’. And, the 95% confidence interval for the proportion of Black patients who would advance to the next stage of CKD upon ignoring ‘Black race’ (using Wald-approximated Confidence Interval for binomial proportion) is between 41.1% and 43.0%. Discussion: The eGFR calculations which place Black patients in lower CKD stages initially may deprive them of important treatment and referral early in their disease course. Removal of the Black race coefficient allows for referral to a nephrologist, Medicare coverage, and the potential need for transplant and/or dialysis. Conclusion: Our analysis demonstrates the impact removal of ‘black race’ coefficient from MDRD eGFR calculation could have on our community

    Status of experimental knowledge on the unbound nucleus 13Be

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    The structure of the unbound nucleus 13Be is important for understanding the Borromean, two-neutron halo nucleus 14Be. The experimental studies conducted over the last four decades are reviewed in the context of the beryllium chain of isotopes and some significant theoretical studies. The focus of this paper is the comparison of new data from a 12Be(d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics, which was analyzed using Geant4 simulations and a Bayesian fitting procedure, with previous measurements. Two possible scenarios to explain the strength below 1 MeV above the neutron separation energy were proposed in that study: a single p-wave resonance or a mixture of an s-wave virtual state with a weaker p- or d-wave resonance. Comparisons of recent invariant mass and the (d,p) experiments show good agreement between the transfer measurement and the two most recent high-energy nucleon removal measurements

    Global, regional, and national incidence of six major immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: findings from the global burden of disease study 2019

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    Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in India.

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    BACKGROUND: In 2017, more than half the cases of typhoid fever worldwide were projected to have occurred in India. In the absence of contemporary population-based data, it is unclear whether declining trends of hospitalization for typhoid in India reflect increased antibiotic treatment or a true reduction in infection. METHODS: From 2017 through 2020, we conducted weekly surveillance for acute febrile illness and measured the incidence of typhoid fever (as confirmed on blood culture) in a prospective cohort of children between the ages of 6 months and 14 years at three urban sites and one rural site in India. At an additional urban site and five rural sites, we combined blood-culture testing of hospitalized patients who had a fever with survey data regarding health care use to estimate incidence in the community. RESULTS: A total of 24,062 children who were enrolled in four cohorts contributed 46,959 child-years of observation. Among these children, 299 culture-confirmed typhoid cases were recorded, with an incidence per 100,000 child-years of 576 to 1173 cases in urban sites and 35 in rural Pune. The estimated incidence of typhoid fever from hospital surveillance ranged from 12 to 1622 cases per 100,000 child-years among children between the ages of 6 months and 14 years and from 108 to 970 cases per 100,000 person-years among those who were 15 years of age or older. Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi was isolated from 33 children, for an overall incidence of 68 cases per 100,000 child-years after adjustment for age. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of typhoid fever in urban India remains high, with generally lower estimates of incidence in most rural areas. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; NSSEFI Clinical Trials Registry of India number, CTRI/2017/09/009719; ISRCTN registry number, ISRCTN72938224.)

    Isotopic cross sections of fragmentation residues produced by light projectiles on carbon near 400A MeV

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    International audienceWe measured 135 cross sections of residual nuclei produced in fragmentation reactions of C12, N14, and O13−16,20,22 projectiles impinging on a carbon target at kinetic energies of near 400A MeV, most of them for the first time, with the RB3/LAND setup at the GSI facility in Darmstadt (Germany). The use of this state-of-the-art experimental setup in combination with the inverse kinematics technique gave the full identification in atomic and mass numbers of fragmentation residues with a high precision. The cross sections of these residues were determined with uncertainties below 20% for most of the cases. These data are compared to other previous measurements with stable isotopes and are also used to benchmark different model calculations
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