19,905 research outputs found

    GaAs transistors formed by Be or Mg ion implantation

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    N-p-n transistor structures have been formed in GaAs by implanting n-type substrates with Be ions to form base regions and then implanting them with 20-keV Si ions to form emitters. P-type layers have been produced in GaAs by implantation of either Mg or Be ions, with substrate at room temperature, followed by annealing at higher temperatures

    On gravity from SST, geoid from Seasat, and plate age and fracture zones in the Pacific

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    A composite map produced by combining 90 passes of SST data show good agreement with conventional GEM models. The SEASAT altimeter data were deduced and found to agree with both the SST and GEM fields. The maps are dominated (especially in the east) by a pattern of roughly east-west anomalies with a transverse wavelength of about 2000 km. Comparison with regional bathymetric data shows a remarkedly close correlation with plate age. Most anomalies in the east half of the Pacific could be partly caused by regional differences in plate age. The amplitude of these geoid or gravity anomalies caused by age differences should decrease with absolute plate age, and large anomalies (approximately 3 m) over old, smooth sea floor may indicate a further deeper source within or perhaps below the lithosphere. The possible plume size and ascent velocity necessary to supply deep mantle material to the upper mantle without complete thermal equilibration was considered. A plume emanating from a buoyant layer 100 km thick and 10,000 times less viscous than the surrounding mantle should have a diameter of about 400 km and must ascend at about 10 cm/yr to arrive still anomalously hot in the uppermost mantle

    KIC 2856960: the impossible triple star

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    KIC 2856960 is a star in the Kepler field which was observed by Kepler for 4 years. It shows the primary and secondary eclipses of a close binary of 0.258d as well as complex dipping events that last for about 1.5d at a time and recur on a 204d period. The dips are thought to result when the close binary passes across the face of a third star. In this paper we present an attempt to model the dips. Despite the apparent simplicity of the system and strenuous efforts to find a solution, we find that we cannot match the dips with a triple star while satisfying Kepler's laws. The problem is that to match the dips the separation of the close binary has to be larger than possible relative to the outer orbit given the orbital periods. Quadruple star models can get round this problem but require the addition of a so-far undetected intermediate period of order 5 -- 20d that has be a near-perfect integer divisor of the outer 204d period. Although we have no good explanation for KIC 2856960, using the full set of Kepler data we are able to update several of its parameters. We also present a spectrum showing that KIC 2856960 is dominated by light from a K3- or K4-type star.Comment: 11 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS August 21, 201

    Competitive partitioning of rotational energy in gas ensemble equilibration

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    A wide-ranging computational study of equilibration in binary mixtures of diatomic gases reveals the existence of competition between the constituent species for the orbital angular momentum and energy available on collision with the bath gas. The ensembles consist of a bath gas AB(v;j), and a highly excited minor component CD(v';j'), present in the ratio AB:CD = 10:1. Each ensemble contains 8000 molecules. Rotational temperatures (T(r)) are found to differ widely at equilibration with T(r)(AB)/T(r)(CD) varying from 2.74 to 0.92, indicating unequal partitioning of rotational energy and angular momentum between the two species. Unusually, low values of T(r) are found generally to be associated with diatomics of low reduced mass. To test effects of the equi-partition theorem on low T(r) we undertook calculations on HF(6;4) in N(2)(0;10) over the range 100-2000 K. No significant change in T(r)(N2)/T(r)(HF) was found. Two potential sources of rotational inequality are examined in detail. The first is possible asymmetry of -Δj and +Δj probabilities for molecules in mid- to high j states resulting from the quadratic dependence of rotational energy on j. The second is the efficiency of conversion of orbital angular momentum, generated on collision with bath gas molecules, into molecular rotation. Comparison of these two possible effects with computed T(r)(AB)/T(r)(CD) shows the efficiency factor to be an excellent predictor of partitioning between the two species. Our finding that T(r) values for molecules such as HF and OH are considerably lower than other modal temperatures suggests that the determination of gas ensemble temperatures from Boltzmann fits to rotational distributions of diatomics of low reduced mass may require a degree of caution

    Discovery of an Ultracool White Dwarf Companion

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    The discovery of a low luminosity common proper motion companion to the white dwarf GD392 at a wide separation of 4646'' is reported. BVRIBVRI photometry suggests a low temperature (Teff4000T_{\rm eff}\sim4000 K) while JHKJHK data strongly indicate suppressed flux at all near infrared wavelengths. Thus, GD392B is one of the few white dwarfs to show significant collision induced absorption due to the presence of photospheric H2{\rm {H_2}} and the first ultracool white dwarf detected as a companion to another star. Models fail to explain GD392B as a normal mass white dwarf. If correct, the cool companion may be explained as a low mass white dwarf or unresolved double degenerate. The similarities of GD392B to known ultracool degenerates are discussed, including some possible implications for the faint end of the white dwarf luminosity function.Comment: 27 pages, 9 figures, 4 tables, re-accepted to ApJ after some revisio

    Close Binary White Dwarf Systems: Numerous New Detections and Their Interpretation

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    We describe radial velocity observations of a large sample of apparently single white dwarfs (WDs), obtained in a long-term effort to discover close, double-degenerate (DD) pairs which might comprise viable Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) progenitors. We augment the WD sample with a previously observed sample of apparently single subdwarf B (sdB) stars, which are believed to evolve directly to the WD cooling sequence after the cessation of core helium burning. We have identified 18 new radial velocity variables, including five confirmed sdB+WD short-period pairs. Our observations are in general agreement with the predictions of the theory of binary star evolution. We describe a numerical method to evaluate the detection efficiency of the survey and estimate the number of binary systems not detected due to the effects of varying orbital inclination, orbital phase at the epoch of the first observation, and the actual temporal sampling of each object in the sample. Follow-up observations are in progress to solve for the orbital parameters of the candidate velocity variables.Comment: 30 pages (LaTeX) + 6 figures (Postscript), aaspp4 styl

    Evidence for bimodal orbital separations of white dwarf-red dwarf binary stars

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    We present the results of a radial velocity survey of 20 white dwarf plus M dwarf binaries selected as a follow up to a \textit{Hubble Space Telescope} study that aimed to spatially resolve suspected binaries. Our candidates are taken from the list of targets that were spatially unresolved with \textit{Hubble}. We have determined the orbital periods for 16 of these compact binary candidates. The period distribution ranges from 0.14 to 9.16\,d and peaks near 0.6\,d. The original sample therefore contains two sets of binaries, wide orbits (1001000\approx100-1000\,au) and close orbits (110\lesssim1-10\,au), with no systems found in the 10100\approx10-100\,au range. This observational evidence confirms the bimodal distribution predicted by population models and is also similar to results obtained in previous studies. We find no binary periods in the months to years range, supporting the post common envelope evolution scenario. One of our targets, WD\,1504+546, was discovered to be an eclipsing binary with a period of 0.93\,d
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