14,581 research outputs found

    A survey for variable young stars with small telescopes: VIII ‚ÄĒ Properties of 1687 Gaia selected members in 21 nearby clusters

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    The Hunting Outbursting Young Stars (HOYS) project performs long-term, optical, multi- filter, high cadence monitoring of 25 nearby young clusters and star forming regions. Utilising Gaia DR3 data we have identified about 17000 potential young stellar members in 45 coherent astrometric groups in these fields. Twenty one of them are clear young groups or clusters of stars within one kiloparsec and they contain 9143 Gaia selected potential members. The cluster distances, proper motions and membership numbers are determined. We analyse long term ( 7 yr) V, R, and I-band light curves from HOYS for 1687 of the potential cluster members. One quarter of the stars are variable in all three optical filters, and two thirds of these have light curves that are symmetric around the mean. Light curves affected by obscuration from circumstellar materials are more common than those affected by accretion bursts, by a factor of 2 ‚Äď 4. The variability fraction in the clusters ranges from 10 to almost 100 percent, and correlates positively with the fraction of stars with detectable inner disks, indicating that a lot of variability is driven by the disk. About one in six variables shows detectable periodicity, mostly caused by magnetic spots. Two thirds of the periodic variables with disk excess emission are slow rotators, and amongst the stars without disk excess two thirds are fast rotators ‚Äď in agreement with rotation being slowed down by the presence of a disk

    The hCOMET project: international database comparison of results with the comet assay in human biomonitoring (baseline frequency of DNA damage and effect of main confounders)

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    The alkaline comet assay, or single cell gel electrophoresis, is one of the most popular methods for assessing DNA damage in the human population. One of the open issues concerning this assay is the identification of those factors that can explain the large inter-individual and inter-laboratory variation. International collaborative initiatives such as the hCOMET project - a COST Action launched in 2016 - represent a valuable tool to meet this challenge. The aims of hCOMET were to establish reference values for the level of DNA damage in humans, to investigate the effect of host factors, lifestyle, and exposure to genotoxic agents, and to compare different sources of assay variability. A database of 19,320 subjects was generated, pooling data from 105 studies run by 44 laboratories in 26 countries between 1999 and 2019. A mixed random effect log-linear model, in parallel with a classic meta-analysis, was applied to take into account the extensive heterogeneity of data, due to descriptor, specimen, and protocol variability. As a result of this analysis interquartile intervals of DNA strand breaks (which includes alkali-labile sites) were reported for tail intensity, tail length, and tail moment (comet assay descriptors). A small variation by age was reported in some datasets, suggesting higher DNA damage in oldest age-classes, while no effect could be shown for sex or smoking habit, although the lack of data on heavy smokers has still to be considered. Finally, highly significant differences in DNA damage were found for most exposures investigated in specific studies. In conclusion, these data, which confirm that DNA damage measured by the comet assay is an excellent biomarker of exposure in several conditions, may contribute to improving the quality of study design and to the standardization of results of the comet assay in humans populations.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    First measurement of the neutron-emission probability with a surrogate reaction in inverse kinematics at a heavy-ion storage ring

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    International audienceNeutron-induced reaction cross sections of short-lived nuclei are imperative to understand the origin of heavy elements in stellar nucleosynthesis and for societal applications, but their measurement is extremely complicated due to the radioactivity of the targets involved. One way of overcoming this issue is to combine surrogate reactions with the unique possibilities offered by heavy-ion storage rings. In this work, we describe the first surrogate-reaction experiment in inverse kinematics, which we successfully conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) of the GSI/FAIR facility, using the 208^{208}Pb(p,p') reaction as a surrogate for neutron capture on 207^{207}Pb. Thanks to the outstanding detection efficiencies possible at the ESR, we were able to measure for the first time the neutron-emission probability as a function of the excitation energy of 208^{208}Pb. We demonstrate the strong connection between this probability and the neutron-induced radiative capture cross section of 207^{207}Pb, and provide reliable results for this cross section at neutron energies for which no experimental data exist

    XAFS-DET: A new high throughout X-ray spectroscopy detector system developed for synchrotron applications

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    The high brilliance and coherent beams resulting from recent upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities open the way for a large range of experiments, where detectors play a key role in the techniques and methods developed to fully exploit the upgraded synchrotron. For instance, one of the major limitations of XAFS experiment is the performance of the detectors. In order to be able to measure more challenging samples and to cope with the very high photon flux of the current and future (diffraction limited) sources, technological developments of detectors are necessary. In this framework, the germanium detector developed in the European project LEAPS-INNOV aims at improving several technological aspects. This type of detector represents a very important class of instruments for X-ray spectroscopy due to the fact that they enable to detect efficiently photons of considerable higher energy with respect to silicon detectors. The objective of this project consists in pushing the detector performance beyond the state-of-the-art. Preliminary layout and main choices for the design studies of this new detector are presented in this paper

    Respirable crystalline silica and lung cancer in community-based studies: impact of job-exposure matrix specifications on exposure‚Äďresponse relationships

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    Objectives: The quantitative job-exposure matrix SYN-JEM consists of various dimensions: job-specific estimates, region-specific estimates, and prior expert ratings of jobs by the semi-quantitative DOM-JEM. We analyzed the effect of different JEM dimensions on the exposure-response relationships between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer risk to investigate how these variations influence estimates of exposure by a quantitative JEM and associated health endpoints. Methods: Using SYN-JEM, and alternative SYN-JEM specifications with varying dimensions included, cumulative silica exposure estimates were assigned to 16 901 lung cancer cases and 20 965 controls pooled from 14 international community-based case-control studies. Exposure-response relationships based on SYN-JEM and alternative SYN-JEM specifications were analyzed using regression analyses (by quartiles and log-transformed continuous silica exposure) and generalized additive models (GAM), adjusted for age, sex, study, cigarette pack-years, time since quitting smoking, and ever employment in occupations with established lung cancer risk. Results: SYN-JEM and alternative specifications generated overall elevated and similar lung cancer odds ratios ranging from 1.13 (1st quartile) to 1.50 (4th quartile). In the categorical and log-linear analyses SYN-JEM with all dimensions included yielded the best model fit, and exclusion of job-specific estimates from SYN-JEM yielded the poorest model fit. Additionally, GAM showed the poorest model fit when excluding job-specific estimates. Conclusion: The established exposure-response relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer was marginally influenced by varying the dimensions of SYN-JEM. Optimized modelling of exposure-response relationships will be obtained when incorporating all relevant dimensions, namely prior rating, job, time, and region. Quantitative job-specific estimates appeared to be the most prominent dimension for this general population JEM

    First measurement of the neutron-emission probability with a surrogate reaction in inverse kinematics at a heavy-ion storage ring

    No full text
    International audienceNeutron-induced reaction cross sections of short-lived nuclei are imperative to understand the origin of heavy elements in stellar nucleosynthesis and for societal applications, but their measurement is extremely complicated due to the radioactivity of the targets involved. One way of overcoming this issue is to combine surrogate reactions with the unique possibilities offered by heavy-ion storage rings. In this work, we describe the first surrogate-reaction experiment in inverse kinematics, which we successfully conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) of the GSI/FAIR facility, using the 208^{208}Pb(p,p') reaction as a surrogate for neutron capture on 207^{207}Pb. Thanks to the outstanding detection efficiencies possible at the ESR, we were able to measure for the first time the neutron-emission probability as a function of the excitation energy of 208^{208}Pb. We demonstrate the strong connection between this probability and the neutron-induced radiative capture cross section of 207^{207}Pb, and provide reliable results for this cross section at neutron energies for which no experimental data exist

    Prevalent occupational exposures and risk of lung cancer among women: Results from the application of the Canadian Job-Exposure Matrix (CANJEM) to a combined set of ten case-control studies.

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    BackgroundWorldwide, lung cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. The present study explored associations between occupational exposures that are prevalent among women, and lung cancer.MethodsData from 10 case-control studies of lung cancer from Europe, Canada, and New Zealand conducted between 1988 and 2008 were combined. Lifetime occupational history and information on nonoccupational factors including smoking were available for 3040 incident lung cancer cases and 4187 controls. We linked each reported job to the Canadian Job-Exposure Matrix (CANJEM), which provided estimates of probability, intensity, and frequency of exposure to each selected agent in each job. For this analysis, we selected 15 agents (cleaning agents, biocides, cotton dust, synthetic fibers, formaldehyde, cooking fumes, organic solvents, cellulose, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum, ammonia, metallic dust, alkanes C18+, iron compounds, isopropanol, and calcium carbonate) that had lifetime exposure prevalence of at least 5% in the combined study population. For each agent, we estimated lung cancer risk in each study center for ever-exposure, by duration of exposure, and by cumulative exposure, using separate logistic regression models adjusted for smoking and other covariates. We then estimated the meta-odds ratios using random-effects meta-analysis.Results and conclusionsNone of the agents assessed showed consistent and compelling associations with lung cancer among women. The following agents showed elevated odds ratio in some analyses: metallic dust, iron compounds, isopropanol, and organic solvents. Future research into occupational lung cancer risk factors among women should prioritize these agents
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