3,456 research outputs found

    Preparation of Spirocyclic Vinylic Carbonates from Allylic Alcohols

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    We present the synthesis of exo- and endo-spirovinylethylene carbonates, starting from various cyclic allylic alcohols. This one-pot cascade reaction to the spirocyclic scaffold was optimized using a design of experiments approach. The introduction of spirovinylethylene carbonates broadens the scope of using these in catalytic applications and provides an easy synthetic entry into spirocyclic scaffolds of various ring sizes

    Freihandbereich Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft AP 19830 B876

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    (1) Adipsin is an adipokine that may link increased fat mass and adipose tissue dysfunction to obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether adipsin serum concentrations and adipose tissue (AT) adipsin mRNA expression are related to parameters of AT function, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). (2) Methods: A cohort of 637 individuals with a wide range of age and body weight (Age: 18–85 years; BMI: 19–70 kg/m2) with (n = 237) or without (n = 400) T2D was analyzed for serum adipsin concentrations by ELISA and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipsin mRNA expression by RT-PCR. (3) Results: Adipsin serum concentrations were significantly higher in patients with T2D compared to normoglycemic individuals. We found significant positive univariate relationships of adipsin serum concentrations with age (r = 0.282, p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.264, p < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.136, p = 0.006) and leptin serum concentrations (r = 0.362, p < 0.001). Neither VAT nor SAT adipsin mRNA expression correlated with adipsin serum concentrations after adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Independent of T2D status, we found significantly higher adipsin expression in SAT compared to VAT (4) Conclusions: Our data suggest that adipsin serum concentrations are strongly related to obesity and age. However, neither circulating adipsin nor adipsin AT expression reflects parameters of impaired glucose or lipid metabolism in patients with obesity with or without T2D

    Freihandbereich Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft AP 19830 B876

    No full text
    (1) Adipsin is an adipokine that may link increased fat mass and adipose tissue dysfunction to obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether adipsin serum concentrations and adipose tissue (AT) adipsin mRNA expression are related to parameters of AT function, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). (2) Methods: A cohort of 637 individuals with a wide range of age and body weight (Age: 18–85 years; BMI: 19–70 kg/m2) with (n = 237) or without (n = 400) T2D was analyzed for serum adipsin concentrations by ELISA and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipsin mRNA expression by RT-PCR. (3) Results: Adipsin serum concentrations were significantly higher in patients with T2D compared to normoglycemic individuals. We found significant positive univariate relationships of adipsin serum concentrations with age (r = 0.282, p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.264, p < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.136, p = 0.006) and leptin serum concentrations (r = 0.362, p < 0.001). Neither VAT nor SAT adipsin mRNA expression correlated with adipsin serum concentrations after adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Independent of T2D status, we found significantly higher adipsin expression in SAT compared to VAT (4) Conclusions: Our data suggest that adipsin serum concentrations are strongly related to obesity and age. However, neither circulating adipsin nor adipsin AT expression reflects parameters of impaired glucose or lipid metabolism in patients with obesity with or without T2D

    New detection systems for an enhanced sensitivity in key stellar (n,Îł) measurements

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    Neutron capture cross-section measurements are fundamental in the study of astrophysical phenomena, such as the slow neutron capture (s-) process of nucleosynthesis operating in red-giant and massive stars. However, neutron capture measurements via the time-of-flight (TOF) technique on key s-process nuclei are often challenging. Difficulties arise from the limited mass (∌mg) available and the high sample-related background in the case of the unstable s-process branching points. Measurements on neutron magic nuclei, that act as s-process bottlenecks, are affected by low (n,Îł) cross sections and a dominant neutron scattering background. Overcoming these experimental challenges requires the combination of facilities with high instantaneous flux, such as n_TOFEAR2, with detection systems with an enhanced detection sensitivity and high counting rate capabilities. This contribution reviews some of the latest detector developments in detection systems for (n,Îł) measurements at n_TOF, such as i-TED, an innovative detection system which exploits the Compton imaging technique to reduce the dominant neutron scattering background and s-TED, a highly segmented total energy detector intended for high flux facilities. The discussion will be illustrated with results of the first measurement of key the s-process branching-point reaction 79Se(n,Îł).Title in Web of Science: New detection systems for an enhanced sensitivity in key stellar (n,gamma) measurements</p

    Identification and properties of intense star-forming galaxies at redshifts z > 10

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    Surveys with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) have discovered candidate galaxies in the first 400 Myr of cosmic time. Preliminary indications have suggested these candidate galaxies may be more massive and abundant than previously thought. However, without confirmed distances, their inferred properties remain uncertain. Here we identify four galaxies located in the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey Near-Infrared Camera imaging with photometric redshifts z of roughly 10–13. These galaxies include the first redshift z &gt; 12 systems discovered with distances spectroscopically confirmed by JWST in a companion paper. Using stellar population modelling, we find the galaxies typically contain 100 million solar masses in stars, in stellar populations that are less than 100 million years old. The moderate star-formation rates and compact sizes suggest elevated star-formation rate surface densities, a key indicator of their formation pathways. Taken together, these measurements show that the first galaxies contributing to cosmic reionization formed rapidly and with intense internal radiation fields

    High resolution

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    Neutron capture cross section measurements of isotopes close to s-process branching-points are of fundamental importance for the understanding of this nucleosynthesis mechanism through which about 50% of the elements heavier than iron are produced. We present in this contribution the results corresponding to the high resolution measurement, for first time ever, of the 80Se(n, Îł) cross section, in which 98 resonances never measured before have been reported. As a consequence, ten times more precise values for the MACS have been obtained compared to previous accepted value adopted in the astrophysical KADoNiS data base

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

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    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4m4m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5m6.5m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 years, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit.Comment: Accepted by PASP for the special issue on The James Webb Space Telescope Overview, 29 pages, 4 figure

    Measurement of the 77Se(n,Îł)^{77}Se ( n , Îł ) cross section up to 200 keV at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The 77Se(n,γ)^{77}Se ( n , γ ) reaction is of importance for 77Se^{77}Se abundance during the slow neutron capture process in massive stars. We have performed a new measurement of the 77Se^{77}Se radiative neutron capture cross section at the Neutron Time-of-Flight facility at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were derived up to 51 keV and cross sections up to 200 keV. Maxwellian-averaged cross sections were calculated for stellar temperatures between kT=5 keVkT=5 \space keV and kT=100 keVkT=100\space keV, with uncertainties between 4.2% and 5.7%. Our results lead to substantial decreases of 14% and 19% in 77Se^{77}Se abundances produced through the slow neutron capture process in selected stellar models of 15M⊙15M⊙ and 2M⊙2M⊙, respectively, compared to using previous recommendation of the cross section

    Measurement of the

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    The neutron capture cross section of 241Am is an important quantity for nuclear energy production and fuel cycle scenarios. Several measurements have been performed in recent years with the aim to reduce existing uncertainties in evaluated data. Two previous measurements, performed at the 185 m flight-path station EAR1 of the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, have permitted to substantially extend the resolved resonance region, but suffered in the near-thermal energy range from the unfavorable signal-to-background ratio resulting from the combination of the high radioactivity of 241Am and the rather low thermal neutron flux. The here presented 241Am(n,Îł) measurement, performed with C6D6 liquid scintillator gamma detectors at the 20 m flight-path station EAR2 of the n_TOF facility, took advantage of the much higher neutron flux. The current status of the analysis of the data, focussed on the low-energy region, will be described here
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