313 research outputs found

    Dietary Barriers Appear to Influence the Effects of a Dyadic Web-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Caloric Intake and Adiposity: A Mediation Analysis of the DUET Trial

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    Mechanisms that explain behavior change within web-based lifestyle interventions are not well-studied. This secondary analysis explores whether the effects of the DUET web-based lifestyle intervention on diet, physical activity, and/or adiposity are mediated through changes in self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barriers (key constructs of social cognitive theory). Data on mediators, diet quality, caloric intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), weight, and waist circumference (WC) were analyzed from 112 cancer survivors and their partners enrolled in the DUET intervention. Mediation analyses were performed using Mplus to execute regression analyses and determine associations. Mediation analyses supported an effect of the intervention on caloric intake (−3.52, 95% CI [−8.08 to −0.84]), weight (−1.60, CI [−3.84 to −0.47]), and WC (−0.83, CI [−1.77 to −0.18]), interpreting these negative associations as intervention induced reductions in dietary barriers. Higher social support was significantly and positively associated with, but not a mediator for, improvements in self-reported and accelerometry-measured MVPA (b = 0.69, CI [0.19, 1.24]) and (b = 0.55, CI [0.15, 1.00]), respectively. Self-efficacy did not appear to mediate the intervention’s effects. Findings suggest that the effects of the DUET intervention on diet and adiposity stem from reducing perceived barriers to a healthful, low-calorie diet

    Validation of the Short Version (TLS-15) of the Triangular Love Scale (TLS-45) Across 37 Languages

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    Love is a phenomenon that occurs across the world and affects many aspects of human life, including the choice of, and process of bonding with, a romantic partner. Thus, developing a reliable and valid measure of love experiences is crucial. One of the most popular tools to quantify love is Sternberg’s 45-item Triangular Love Scale (TLS-45), which measures three love components: intimacy, passion, and commitment. However, our literature review reveals that most studies (64%) use a broad variety of shortened versions of the TLS-45. Here, aiming to achieve scientific consensus and improve the reliability, comparability, and generalizability of results across studies, we developed a short version of the scale—the TLS-15—comprised of 15 items with 5-point, rather than 9-point, response scales. In Study 1 (N = 7,332), we re-analyzed secondary data from a large-scale multinational study that validated the original TLS-45 to establish whether the scale could be truncated. In Study 2 (N = 307), we provided evidence for the three-factor structure of the TLS-15 and its reliability. Study 3 (N = 413) confirmed convergent validity and test–retest stability of the TLS-15. Study 4 (N = 60,311) presented a large-scale validation across 37 linguistic versions of the TLS-15 on a cross-cultural sample spanning every continent of the globe. The overall results provide support for the reliability, validity, and cross-cultural invariance of the TLS-15, which can be used as a measure of love components—either separately or jointly as a three-factor measure

    Essential oil antifeedants against armyworms: promises and challenges

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    Plant secondary metabolites are fascinating weapons in the fight against herbivores. Of note, products of the plant secondary metabolism can be highly useful in developing insecticides for insect pest management. In this framework, the present review focuses on a group of plant secondary metabolites, i.e., essential oils (EOs), and a major group of insect pest species, armyworms, Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with a major focus on antifeeding responses. Among all tested EOs, only the ones extracted from Angelica archangelica, Artemisia nakaii, Piper hispidinervum, P. sanctifelicis, Pulegium vulgare and Tanacetum parthenium showed good antifeedant efficacy (i.e., ED50<10 μg/cm2) against Spodoptera littoralis or S. litura. EO major constituents showing promising antifeedant activity include pulegone, 11α-epoxyeremophil- 9-en-8-one (ligudicin A), piperitone epoxide and thujone, all showing ED50<1 μg/cm2. Other promising compounds are dehydrofukinone, germacrone, piperitenone and piperitenone oxide, showing ED50<5 μg/cm2. Overall, considering the sparse literature on the topic and the lack of standardized methods for testing EOs and their major constituents as antifeed- ants on armyworms, a call for standardization of armyworm antifeedant tests is presented

    Predictors of enhancing human physical attractiveness : data from 93 countries

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    International audienc

    Predictors of enhancing human physical attractiveness: Data from 93 countries

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    People across the world and throughout history have gone to great lengths to enhance their physical appearance. Evolutionary psychologists and ethologists have largely attempted to explain this phenomenon via mating preferences and strategies. Here, we test one of the most popular evolutionary hypotheses for beauty-enhancing behaviors, drawn from mating market and parasite stress perspectives, in a large cross-cultural sample. We also test hypotheses drawn from other influential and non-mutually exclusive theoretical frameworks, from biosocial role theory to a cultural media perspective. Survey data from 93,158 human participants across 93 countries provide evidence that behaviors such as applying makeup or using other cosmetics, hair grooming, clothing style, caring for body hygiene, and exercising or following a specific diet for the specific purpose of improving ones physical attractiveness, are universal. Indeed, 99% of participants reported spending >10 min a day performing beauty-enhancing behaviors. The results largely support evolutionary hypotheses: more time was spent enhancing beauty by women (almost 4 h a day, on average) than by men (3.6 h a day), by the youngest participants (and contrary to predictions, also the oldest), by those with a relatively more severe history of infectious diseases, and by participants currently dating compared to those in established relationships. The strongest predictor of attractiveness-enhancing behaviors was social media usage. Other predictors, in order of effect size, included adhering to traditional gender roles, residing in countries with less gender equality, considering oneself as highly attractive or, conversely, highly unattractive, TV watching time, higher socioeconomic status, rightwing political beliefs, a lower level of education, and personal individualistic attitudes. This study provides novel insight into universal beauty-enhancing behaviors by unifying evolutionary theory with several other complementary perspectives

    Invasiveness, biology, ecology, and management of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

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    This is the author accepted mansucriptThe fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith, 1797), is a serious pest of several crops, particularly maize and other cereals. It has long been known as a pest in the Americas and has invaded most of Africa and parts of the Middle East, Asia, and Australia in the last six years. Its new status as an invasive species causing serious damage in many regions worldwide has highlighted the need for better understanding and has generated much research. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of FAW covering its (i) taxonomy, biology, ecology, genomics, and microbiome, (ii) worldwide status and geographic spread, (iii) potential for geographic expansion and quarantine measures in place, and (iv) management including monitoring, sampling, forecasting, biological control, biopesticides, agroecological strategies, chemical control, insecticide resistance, effects of insecticides on natural enemies, as well as conventional and transgenic resistant cultivars. We conclude with recommendations for research to enhance the sustainable management of FAW in invaded regions.Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), UKDirectorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS), NetherlandsEuropean Commission Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development (DEVCO)Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech RepublicNORA

    Predictors of Enhancing Human Physical Attractiveness: Data from 93 Countries

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    People across the world and throughout history have gone to great lengths to enhance their physical appearance. Evolutionary psychologists and ethologists have largely attempted to explain this phenomenon via mating preferences and strategies. Here, we test one of the most popular evolutionary hypotheses for beauty-enhancing behaviors, drawn from mating market and parasite stress perspectives, in a large cross-cultural sample. We also test hypotheses drawn from other influential and non-mutually exclusive theoretical frameworks, from biosocial role theory to a cultural media perspective. Survey data from 93,158 human participants across 93 countries provide evidence that behaviors such as applying makeup or using other cosmetics, hair grooming, clothing style, caring for body hygiene, and exercising or following a specific diet for the specific purpose of improving ones physical attractiveness, are universal. Indeed, 99% of participants reported spending \u3e10 min a day performing beauty-enhancing behaviors. The results largely support evolutionary hypotheses: more time was spent enhancing beauty by women (almost 4 h a day, on average) than by men (3.6 h a day), by the youngest participants (and contrary to predictions, also the oldest), by those with a relatively more severe history of infectious diseases, and by participants currently dating compared to those in established relationships. The strongest predictor of attractiveness-enhancing behaviors was social media usage. Other predictors, in order of effect size, included adhering to traditional gender roles, residing in countries with less gender equality, considering oneself as highly attractive or, conversely, highly unattractive, TV watching time, higher socioeconomic status, right-wing political beliefs, a lower level of education, and personal individualistic attitudes. This study provides novel insight into universal beauty-enhancing behaviors by unifying evolutionary theory with several other complementary perspectives

    Predictors of enhancing human physical attractiveness: Data from 93 countries

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    International audienc

    Insecticidal Activity of Four Essential Oils Extracted from Chilean Patagonian Plants as Potential Organic Pesticide

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    Patagonia is a geographical area characterized by a wide plant biodiversity. Several native plant species are traditionally used in medicine by the local population and demonstrated to be sources of biologically active compounds. Due to the massive need for green and sustainable pesticides, this study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) from understudied plants growing in this propitious area. Ciprés (Pilgerodendron uviferum), tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana), canelo (Drimys winteri), and paramela (Adesmia boronioides) EOs were extracted through steam distillation, and their compositions were analyzed through GC–MS analysis. EO contact toxicity against Musca domestica L., Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say was then evaluated. As a general trend, EOs performed better on housefly males over females. Ciprés EO showed the highest insecticidal efficacy. The LD50(90) values were 68.6 (183.7) and 11.3 (75.1) µg adult−1 on housefly females and males, respectively. All EOs were effective against S. littoralis larvae; LD50 values were 33.2–66.7 µg larva−1, and tepa EO was the most effective in terms of LD90 (i.e., <100 µg larva−1). Canelo, tepa, and paramela EOs were highly effective on C. quinquefasciatus larvae, with LC50 values < 100 µL L−1. Again, tepa EO achieved LD90 < 100 µL L−1. This EO was characterized by safrole (43.1%), linalool (27.9%), and methyl eugenol (6.9%) as major constituents. Overall, Patagonian native plant EOs can represent a valid resource for local stakeholders, to develop effective insecticides for pest and vector management, pending a proper focus on their formulation and nontarget effects
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