669 research outputs found

    Investment in Human Capital of a Powerful Interest Group: The Case of the Medical Profession in Britain, France, Sweden and the United States from 1890 to 1970

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    This paper presents a new agenda for analyzing the consequences from investments in human capital by suggesting that sociological research should focus on particular sectors of society, that performances other than economic growth and productivity should be considered, and that the role of the state influences the impact which investments in human capital have on system performance. The research assesses the impact which investments in doctors and medical specialists have on social effectiveness (measured as reductions in mortality) and social efficiency (the level of health achieved relative to the cost per capita) in Britain, France, Sweden and the United States during the period between 1890 and 1970. In addition to evaluating the impact of investments in human capital on social efficiency and social effectiveness, the paper contributes to the literature on the state by developing measures for assessing the contribution of state structure on system performance. As hypothesized, investments in human capital are socially effective but not socially efficient. When the state intervenes in the delivery of medical care, it has a multiplier effect on the impact of human capital on social effectiveness.Dieses Papier stellt einen neuen Anlauf zur Analyse der Konsequenzen von Investitionen in Humankapital dar, indem es vorschl√§gt, sich in der Forschung auf spezifische Gesellschaftsbereiche zu konzentrieren, da√ü Leistungsma√üe jenseits √∂konomischen Wachstums und √∂konomischer Produktivit√§t Ber√ľcksichtigung finden. Auch der intervenierende Einflu√ü des Staates auf die Wirkungen, welche Investitionen in Humankapital auf die Leistungsf√§higkeiten des Systems haben, sollte ber√ľcksichtigt werden. Die in diesem Aufsatz dargestellte Forschung sch√§tzt die Wirkungen ab, welche Investitionen in √Ąrzte und medizinische Spezialisten auf die soziale Effektivit√§t (gemessen als Verminderung von Sterblichkeit) und soziale Effizienz (das Gesundheitsniveau im Verh√§ltnis zu den Gesundheitskosten per Einwohner) in Gro√übritannien, Frankreich, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten w√§hrend des Zeitraums von 1890 bis 1970 hatten. √úber diese Evaluation hinaus ist der Aufsatz ein Beitrag zur staatstheoretischen Literatur, indem er Ma√üe entwickelt, mit denen die Wirkung staatlicher Strukturen auf die Leistungsf√§higkeit spezifischer Systeme abgesch√§tzt werden k√∂nnen. Investitionen in Humankapital erweisen sich als sozial effektiv aber nicht effizient. Immer dann, wenn der Staat in das System medizinischer Dienstleistungen eingreift, hat dies einen Multiplikationseffekt hinsichtlich des Einflusses von Humankapital auf soziale Effektivit√§t.1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework 2.1 Human Capital and Social Effectiveness 2.2 Human Capital and Social Efficiency 2.3 Physicians-, the State, and Social Performances 3. Research Design, Data, and Methodology 3.1 The Dependent Variables: Social Effectiveness and Social Efficiency 3.2 The Independent Variables 3.3 Data 3.4 Data Analytic Techniques 4. Findings 4.1 Trends in Mortality and Social Efficiency 4.2 Human Capital Investment and Social Effectiveness 4.3 Human Capital Investment and Social Efficiency 5. Discussion Appendix: Data Sources Bibliograph

    New apparatus for DTA at 2000 bar: thermodynamic studies on Au, Ag, Al and HTSC oxides

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    A new DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) device was designed and installed in a Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP) furnace in order to perform high-pressure thermodynamic investigations up to 2 kbar and 1200C. Thermal analysis can be carried out in inert or oxidising atmosphere up to p(O2) = 400 bar. The calibration of the DTA apparatus under pressure was successfully performed using the melting temperature (Tm) of pure metals (Au, Ag and Al) as standard calibration references. The thermal properties of these metals have been studied under pressure. The values of DV (volume variation between liquid and solid at Tm), ROsm (density of the solid at Tm) and ALPHAm (linear thermal expansion coefficient at Tm) have been extracted. A very good agreement was found with the existing literature and new data were added. This HP-DTA apparatus is very useful for studying the thermodynamics of those systems where one or more volatile elements are present, such as high TC superconducting oxides. DTA measurements have been performed on Bi,Pb(2223) tapes up to 2 kbar under reduced oxygen partial pressure (p(O2) = 0.07 bar). The reaction leading to the formation of the 2223 phase was found to occur at higher temperatures when applying pressure: the reaction DTA peak shifted by 49C at 2 kbar compared to the reaction at 1 bar. This temperature shift is due to the higher stability of the Pb-rich precursor phases under pressure, as the high isostatic pressure prevents Pb from evaporating.Comment: 6 figures, 3 tables, Thermodynamics, Thermal property, Bi-2223, fundamental valu

    Association between co-authorship network and scientific productivity and impact indicators in academic medical research centers: A case study in Iran

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>We aimed to examine the co-authorship networks in three successful Iranian academic research centers, in order to find the association between the scientific productivity and impact indicators with network features in a case study.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We searched for English articles of the three research centers. We drew co-authorship maps of each center and calculated social network measures.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The collaboration networks in centers shared many structural features, including a "star-like" pattern of relations. Centers with more successful scientific profile showed denser and more cooperative networks. Key figures in each center were interviewed for their understandings of the reasons for the emergence of these patterns.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Star shape network structure and dependency on a single big member is a common feature observed in our case study. Scientific output measures correlate with the network structure of research centers. Network analysis seems a useful method to explore the subtle scientific contexts in research organizations.</p

    A multilevel analytical framework for studying cultural evolution in prehistoric hunter-gatherer societies

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    Over the past decade, a major debate has taken place on the underpinnings of cultural changes in human societies. A growing array of evidence in behavioural and evolutionary biology has revealed that social connectivity among populations and within them affects, and is affected by, culture. Yet the interplay between prehistoric hunter-gatherer social structure and cultural transmission has typically been overlooked. Interestingly, the archaeological record contains large data sets, allowing us to track cultural changes over thousands of years: they thus offer a unique opportunity to shed light on long‚Äźterm cultural transmission processes

    Assessment of New Hub-and-spoke and Point-to-point Airline Network Configurations

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    This paper aims to provide new measures of airline network configuration with a view to analyse effectively the complexity of modern carriers' network design. It studies network configurations in the airline sector by taking into account both spatial and temporal dimensions. The spatial dimension is measured by using both the Gini index and the Freeman index, which originate from social science research. The temporal dimension is measured by the connectivity ratio, i.e. the share of indirect connections over the total number of connections. According to these indicators, the configuration of the largest full-service carriers and the largest low-cost carriers in Europe is investigated. The results show that the temporal dimension provides a clear distinction between full-service carriers and low-cost carriers; while the spatial dimension appears useful when identifying the peculiarities within groups

    Direct and indirect contacts between cattle farms in north-west England

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    Little is known regarding the types and frequencies of contact that exist between farms and which of these may act as pathogen transmission routes; however it is likely that farms demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in such contacts. In this cross-sectional study, we explored the direct and indirect contact types and frequencies that exist between cattle farms within a region, focusing on potential routes of pathogen transmission. The owners/managers of 56 farms located in a 10 km by 10 km study area in north-west England were administered an interview-based questionnaire between June and September 2005. Information was obtained relating to contact types and frequencies, including those involving animal movements, equipment sharing between farms and any contractors or companies visiting the farms. The data was explored using hierarchical cluster analysis and network analysis. There was considerable variation between farms arising from different contact types. Some networks exhibited great connectivity, incorporating approximately 90% of the farms interviewed in a single component, whilst other networks were more fragmented, with multiple small components (sets of connected farms not linked with other farms). A range of factors influencing contact between farms were identified. For example, contiguous farms were more likely to be linked via other contacts, such as sharing of equipment and direct farm-to-farm animal movements (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The frequency of contacts was also investigated; it is likely that the amount of contact a farm receives from a company or contractor and whether or not biosecurity is performed after contact would impact on disease transmission potential. We found considerable heterogeneity in contact frequency and that many company and contractor personnel undertook little biosecurity. These findings lead to greater understanding of inter-farm contact and may aid development of appropriate biosecurity practices and control procedures, and inform mathematical modelling of infectious diseases
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