25 research outputs found

    Lytic xylan oxidases from wood-decay fungi unlock biomass degradation

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    Wood biomass is the most abundant feedstock envisioned for the development of modern biorefineries. However, the cost-ef-fective conversion of this form of biomass into commodity products is limited by its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Here we describe a new family of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) prevalent among white-rot and brown-rot basidiomycetes that is active on xylans—a recalcitrant polysaccharide abundant in wood biomass. Two AA14 LPMO members from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus coccineus substantially increase the efficiency of wood saccharification through oxida-tive cleavage of highly refractory xylan-coated cellulose fibers. The discovery of this unique enzyme activity advances our knowledge on the degradation of woody biomass in nature and offers an innovative solution for improving enzyme cocktails for biorefinery applications

    Gene expression variability across cells and species shapes innate immunity.

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    As the first line of defence against pathogens, cells mount an innate immune response, which varies widely from cell to cell. The response must be potent but carefully controlled to avoid self-damage. How these constraints have shaped the evolution of innate immunity remains poorly understood. Here we characterize the innate immune response's transcriptional divergence between species and variability in expression among cells. Using bulk and single-cell transcriptomics in fibroblasts and mononuclear phagocytes from different species, challenged with immune stimuli, we map the architecture of the innate immune response. Transcriptionally diverging genes, including those that encode cytokines and chemokines, vary across cells and have distinct promoter structures. Conversely, genes that are involved in the regulation of this response, such as those that encode transcription factors and kinases, are conserved between species and display low cell-to-cell variability in expression. We suggest that this expression pattern, which is observed across species and conditions, has evolved as a mechanism for fine-tuned regulation to achieve an effective but balanced response
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