16,880 research outputs found

    Information Difference of Transfer Entropies between Head Motion and Eye Movement Indicates a Proxy of Driving

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    Visual scanning is achieved via head motion and gaze movement for visual information acquisition and cognitive processing, which plays a critical role in undertaking common sensorimotor tasks such as driving. The coordination of the head and eyes is an important human behavior to make a key contribution to goal-directed visual scanning and sensorimotor driving. In this paper, we basically investigate the two most common patterns in eye–head coordination: “head motion earlier than eye movement” and “eye movement earlier than head motion”. We utilize bidirectional transfer entropies between head motion and eye movements to determine the existence of these two eye–head coordination patterns. Furthermore, we propose a unidirectional information difference to assess which pattern predominates in head–eye coordination. Additionally, we have discovered a significant correlation between the normalized unidirectional information difference and driving performance. This result not only indicates the influence of eye–head coordination on driving behavior from a computational perspective but also validates the practical significance of our approach utilizing transfer entropy for quantifying eye–head coordination

    Image_2_Effects and safety of Ginkgo biloba on blood metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.tif

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    BackgroundThere has existed controversy regarding the use of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) for blood metabolism among type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) patients, and we tried to analyze the effects and safety of GKB on T2DM patients.MethodsWe conducted a literature search between January 2003 and December 2022 of seven online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure). A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed to compare the effects and safety of GKB among T2DM patients. Four groups of parameters were extracted and analyzed: hemorheology parameters, lipid profile, glycemic control markers, and adverse events.ResultsIn the end, 13 eligible articles with 11 indicators among 1573 patients were included. In the hemorheology parameters section, GKB showed significantly lower plasma viscosity (PV) (SMD=-0.91, 95%CI [-1.45, -0.36], PConclusionIn conclusion, GKB might safely reduce the risk of peripheral arterial or even systemic cardiovascular disease. However, GKB did not directly improve lipid and blood glucose levels in T2DM patients.Systematic review registrationhttps://inplasy.com/, identifier INPLASY202350096.</p

    CEPC Technical Design Report -- Accelerator

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    International audienceThe Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is a large scientific project initiated and hosted by China, fostered through extensive collaboration with international partners. The complex comprises four accelerators: a 30 GeV Linac, a 1.1 GeV Damping Ring, a Booster capable of achieving energies up to 180 GeV, and a Collider operating at varying energy modes (Z, W, H, and ttbar). The Linac and Damping Ring are situated on the surface, while the Booster and Collider are housed in a 100 km circumference underground tunnel, strategically accommodating future expansion with provisions for a Super Proton Proton Collider (SPPC). The CEPC primarily serves as a Higgs factory. In its baseline design with synchrotron radiation (SR) power of 30 MW per beam, it can achieve a luminosity of 5e34 /cm^2/s^1, resulting in an integrated luminosity of 13 /ab for two interaction points over a decade, producing 2.6 million Higgs bosons. Increasing the SR power to 50 MW per beam expands the CEPC's capability to generate 4.3 million Higgs bosons, facilitating precise measurements of Higgs coupling at sub-percent levels, exceeding the precision expected from the HL-LHC by an order of magnitude. This Technical Design Report (TDR) follows the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (Pre-CDR, 2015) and the Conceptual Design Report (CDR, 2018), comprehensively detailing the machine's layout and performance, physical design and analysis, technical systems design, R&D and prototyping efforts, and associated civil engineering aspects. Additionally, it includes a cost estimate and a preliminary construction timeline, establishing a framework for forthcoming engineering design phase and site selection procedures. Construction is anticipated to begin around 2027-2028, pending government approval, with an estimated duration of 8 years. The commencement of experiments could potentially initiate in the mid-2030s

    Comprehensive typhoon hazard zoning in China based on historical records

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    The formulation of nationwide goals, strategic plans, and specifically zoned areas for typhoon hazard mitigation and prevention is paramount for addressing the threat in a spatially explicit manner. Utilizing historical rainfall and wind speed data associated with typhoon disasters in the Northwest Pacific and South China Sea from 1949 to 2017, we proposed a comprehensive typhoon hazard zoning delineated based on the assessment of typhoon disaster risks, considering hazard-causing factors, hazard-formative environments, and hazard-bearing bodies through an Analytic Hierarchy Process. High-risk areas were primarily located in the coastal regions of South and Southeast China. Medium-risk areas were situated in the Yangtze River Delta and towns adjacent to Bohai Bay. Low-risk areas were primarily located in the central region of Guangxi, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the vicinity of Fuzhou, the majority of southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang, all of Shanghai, the northern and southern parts of the Shandong Peninsula, the area around Bohai Bay in Tianjin, a minor portion of Hebei, and the three northeastern provinces. Appropriate mitigation measures were proposed to address the threats posed by typhoons in these regions. This information is instrumental in providing reliable support for China in addressing the challenges posed by typhoons. The risk associated with typhoon hazards was evaluated utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method.Contributing factors and the prevailing environment were incorporated into the risk assessment.The delineation of hazard zones for typhoons across China was conducted through Geographic Information System (GIS) technology.Zoning for resilient cities was established, with considerations for climate change, to fortify urban areas against the impacts of typhoon hazards. The risk associated with typhoon hazards was evaluated utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Contributing factors and the prevailing environment were incorporated into the risk assessment. The delineation of hazard zones for typhoons across China was conducted through Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. Zoning for resilient cities was established, with considerations for climate change, to fortify urban areas against the impacts of typhoon hazards.</p

    The mechanisms of ferroptosis and its role in atherosclerosis

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    Ferroptosis is a newly identified form of non-apoptotic programmed cell death, characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of lethal lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid phospholipids (PUFA-PLs). Ferroptosis is unique among other cell death modalities in many aspects. It is initiated by excessive oxidative damage due to iron overload and lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defense systems, including the system Xc-/ glutathione (GSH)/glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) pathway and the GPX4-independent pathways. In the past ten years, ferroptosis was reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, e.g., atherosclerosis (AS), arrhythmia, heart failure, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Studies have identified dysfunctional iron metabolism and abnormal expression profiles of ferroptosis-related factors, including iron, GSH, GPX4, ferroportin (FPN), and SLC7A11 (xCT), as critical indicators for atherogenesis. Moreover, ferroptosis in plaque cells, i.e., vascular endothelial cell (VEC), macrophage, and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), positively correlate with atherosclerotic plaque development. Many macromolecules, drugs, Chinese herbs, and food extracts can inhibit the atherogenic process by suppressing the ferroptosis of plaque cells. In contrast, some ferroptosis inducers have significant pro-atherogenic effects. However, the mechanisms through which ferroptosis affects the progression of AS still need to be well-known. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of ferroptosis and their emerging role in AS, aimed at providing novel, promising druggable targets for anti-AS therapy

    DataSheet_3_Will previous antimicrobial therapy reduce the positivity rate of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in periprosthetic joint infections? A clinical study.pdf

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    BackgroundMetagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a culture-independent massively parallel DNA sequencing technology and it has been widely used for rapid etiological diagnosis with significantly high positivity rate. Currently, clinical studies on evaluating the influence of previous antimicrobial therapy on positivity rate of mNGS in PJIs are rarely reported. The present study aimed to investigate whether the positivity rate of mNGS is susceptible to previous antimicrobial therapy.MethodsWe performed a prospective trial among patients who undergone hip or knee surgery due to periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) to compare the positivity rate of culture and mNGS between cases with and without previous antimicrobial therapy, and the positivity rates between cases with different antimicrobial-free intervals were also analysed.ResultsAmong 131 included PJIs, 91 (69.5%) had positive cultures and 115 (87.8%) had positive mNGS results. There was no significant difference in the positivity rate of deep-tissue culture and synovial fluid mNGS between cases with and without previous antimicrobial therapy. The positivity rate of synovial fluid culture was higher in cases with previous antimicrobial therapy. The positivity rates of mNGS in synovial fluid decreased as the antimicrobial-free interval ranged from 4 to 14 days to 0 to 3 days.ConclusionmNGS is more advantageous than culture with a higher pathogen detection rate. However, our data suggested that antimicrobial agents may need to be discontinued more than 3 days before sampling to further increase the positivity rate of mNGS for PJIs.</p

    Investigating the pathogens associated with Dermacentor nuttalli and its global distribution: A study integrating metagenomic sequencing, meta-analysis and niche modeling

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    Dermacentor nuttalli, a member of family Ixodidae and genus Dermacentor, is predominantly found in North Asia. It transmits various pathogens of human and animal diseases, such as Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus and Brucella ovis, leading to severe symptoms in patients and posing serious hazards to livestock husbandry. To profile pathogen abundances of wild D. nuttalli, metagenomic sequencing was performed of four field-collected tick samples, revealing that Rickettsia, Streptomyces, and Pseudomonas were the most abundant bacterial genera in D. nuttalli. Specifically, four nearly complete Rickettsia genomes were assembled, closely relative to Rickettsia conorii subsp. raoultii. Then, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed to evaluate its potential threats based on detected pathogens and geographical distribution positions reported in literature, reference books, related websites, and field surveys. At least 48 pathogens were identified, including 20 species of bacteria, seven species of eukaryota, and 21 species of virus. Notably, Rickettsia conorii subsp. raoultii, Coxiella burnetii, and Brucella ovis displayed remarkably high positivity rates, which were known to cause infectious diseases in both humans and livestock. Currently, the primary distribution of D. nuttalli spans China, Mongolia, and Russia. However, an additional 14 countries in Asia and America that may also be affected by D. nuttalli were identified in our niche model, despite no previous reports of its presence in these areas. This study provides comprehensive data and analysis on the pathogens carried by D. nuttalli, along with documented and potential distribution, suggesting an emerging threat to public health and animal husbandry. Therefore, there is a need for heightened surveillance and thorough investigation of D. nuttalli

    Table_1_The positivity rates and drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using nucleotide MALDI-TOF MS assay among suspected tuberculosis patients in Shandong, China: a multi-center prospective study.docx

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    ObjectiveTo investigate the positivity rates and drug resistance characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) among suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients in Shandong Province, the second-largest population province in China.MethodsA prospective, multi-center study was conducted from April 2022 to June 2023. Pathogen and drug resistance were identified using nucleotide matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nucleotide MALDI-TOF MS).ResultsOf 940 suspected TB patients included in this study, 552 cases were found to be infected with MTB giving an overall positivity rate of 58.72%. Total of 346 cases were resistant to arbitrary anti-TB drug (62.68%), with Zibo (76.47%), Liaocheng and Weihai (both 69.23%) ranking top three and TB treatment history might be a related factor. Monoresistance was the most common pattern (33.53%), with isoniazid the highest at 12.43%, followed by rifampicin at 9.54%. Further analysis of gene mutations conferring resistance revealed diverse types with high heteroresistance rate found in multiple anti-TB drugs.ConclusionA relatively high rate of MTB positivity and drug resistance was found in Shandong Province during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, indicating the need for strengthening rapid identification of species and drug resistance among suspected TB patients to guide better medication and minimize the occurrence of drug resistance.</p

    Phenolic and flavonoid compounds from the fruit shell of <i>Camellia oleifera</i>

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    A new phenolic compound oleiphenol (1), and a new dihydrochalcone oleifechalcone (2) along with seven known compounds (3-9) were isolated from the fruit shell of Camellia oleifera Abel. The planar structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (IR, UV, NMR, and HR-ESI-MS) and comparison with literature data. The absolute configurations of the new structures were determined by ECD calculations and chemical methods. In addition, compounds 1-9 underwent a series of pharmacological activity tests, including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-RSV and antioxidant activities.</p
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