86,411 research outputs found

    Effects of different tillage and residue management systems on soil organic carbon stock and grain yield of rice–wheat double cropping system

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    Of late, intensive agricultural practices are often associated with many negative implications for soil systems, such as decline in soil organic matter and biological diversity, and increase in the risk of soil erosion, and degradation of soil physical quality. However, conservation agriculture (CA) offers minimum soil disturbance, improving and creating more efficient use of natural resources, enhancing use efficiency of external inputs and increasing soil functioning, organic matter content, and biodiversity. However, CA practices need to be redefined at the specific field level or growing conditions to promote sustainable production system without deteriorating soil health, and to manage profitability. Therefore, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different tillage and residue management practices; CT0 (puddled transplanted rice followed by conventional tilled wheat sown with residue removal); CTR (puddled transplanted rice followed by conventional tilled wheat sown with residue retention); NT0 (direct seeded rice followed by zero-tilled wheat sown with residue removal); NTR (direct seeded rice followed by zero-tilled wheat sown with residue retention) on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and grain yield of rice–wheat double cropping system. The results showed that the mean SOC stock increased by 31%, 21.9% and 15.3% and by 35.2%, 22% and 17% under NTR, CTR, and NT0 compared with CT0. Furthermore, the SOC sequestration rate in NTR was significantly higher than other treatments. Particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration was 58.4% higher in 0–15 cm than 15–30 cm soil layer, and the maximum concentration was recorded under NTR and minimum was under CT0. The highest average rice grain yield was recorded under CTR, which was 5.5%, 16.2% and 24.3% higher than CT0, NTR and NT0, respectively. Both NTR and CTR produced more average wheat yield, which was 8.4% and 8.5% higher than CT0 and NT0, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed that cumulative cropping system yield and SOC were increased under CTR, NTR as compared to other treatments. Therefore, it can be drawn that residue retention could be a useful management practice to increase SOC stock and grain yield under both tillage practices in the rice–wheat cropping system

    Additional file 1 of Effect of psychosocial interventions for depression in adults with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Additional file 1: Table S1. Search strategy of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of science

    Data_Sheet_1_Drug resistance patterns and genotype associations of Trichomonas gallinae in meat pigeons (Columba livia): insights from Guangdong Province, China.DOCX

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    Avian trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, is a prevalent and economically significant disease in pigeons. This study investigated the drug resistance of T. gallinae isolates in Guangdong Province, China. The results revealed that 25.3% (20/79) of the isolates were resistant to one or more of the four nitroimidazole drugs tested, namely, metronidazole, dimetridazole, secnidazole, and tinidazole. Secnidazole elicited the highest resistance rate (19.0%; 15/79), followed by tinidazole (17.7%; 14/79), metronidazole (17.7%; 14/79), and dimetridazole (13.9%; 11/79). An enormous majority of the resistant isolates (70.0%; 14/20) exhibited resistance to multiple drugs. Additionally, the resistance rate was significantly higher in isolates from birds aged < 30 days (53.3%; 8/15) than in those from older birds (23.1%; 12/52). Moreover, no drug resistance was detected in female pigeons. The genotype of the isolated strain was also associated with drug resistance. Specifically, 50.0% (15/30) of ITS-B genotypes exhibited resistance to drugs, while only 10.2% (5/49) of ITS-A genotypes demonstrated resistance. This study also found the growth characteristics of different Trichomonas isolates to be influenced by their genotypes and initial inoculum concentrations. These findings underscore the urgent need for effective measures to control and prevent drug-resistant T. gallinae infections in pigeons, thus ensuring the stable development of the pigeon industry.</p

    Efficient extraction of pectic polysaccharides from thinned unripe kiwifruits by deep eutectic solvent-based methods: Chemical structures and bioactivities

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    To promote the potentially industrial applications of thinned unripe kiwifruits, two deep eutectic solvent-based methods, including deep eutectic solvent-assisted extraction (DAE) and microwave-assisted deep eutectic solvent extraction (MDE), were optimized for the extraction of polysaccharides from thinned unripe kiwifruits (YKP). Results showed that the yields of YKP-D prepared by DAE and YKP-DM prepared by MDE were extremely higher than YKP-H prepared by hot water extraction. Furthermore, YKP-H, YKP-D, and YKP-DM were mainly composed of pectic polysaccharides, including homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) domains. Besides, both YKP-D and YKP-DM exhibited stronger antioxidant, anti-glycosylation, and immunomodulatory effects than those of YKP-H, and their higher contents of uronic acids and bound polyphenols as well as lower molecular weights could partially contribute to their bioactivities. Overall, these results revealed that the developed MDE method could be utilized as a promising method for highly efficient extraction of YKP with superior beneficial effects

    Design of TiO<sub>2</sub>@Carbon@Prussian Blue Core–Shell Nanorod Arrays for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance

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    The thoughtful design of effective photoanodes has drawn significant attention. Here, a Z-scheme core–shell TiO2@carbon@prussian blue (TiO2@C@PB) is designed for photoelectrochemical water splitting. TiO2@C@PB composite film has a larger absorption range, and the band gap is decreased from 3.10 to 2.65 eV. Under illumination conditions, the TiO2@C@PB composite photoanode achieves a photocurrent density of 2.78 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs RHE, nearly 2.5 times higher than that of pure TiO2. The enhancement is ascribed to the suppressed recombination of photogenerated charges facilitated by the Z-scheme heterojunction and the excellent conductivity of carbon. This study offers an effective approach for developing highly efficient photoelectrochemical water-splitting photoanodes

    Table_1_Dermatologic toxicities in epidermal growth factor receptor: a comprehensive pharmacovigilance study from 2013 to 2023.DOCX

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    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) induced cutaneous toxicity is a common adverse event (AE), although it is not as severe as major cancers, we still need to pay enough attention to them. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the diversity of EGFRI class drugs. The objective of this study was to conduct a scientific and systematic investigation into the correlation between EGFRI and cutaneous toxicities. The data accessed from the FDA adverse event reporting system database (FAERS) encompass a time frame spanning from January 2013 to March 2023. By utilizing reporting odds ratios (RORs), information components (ICs), proportional reporting ratios (PRRs), and chi-squared (χ2), the relationship between drugs and adverse reactions was evaluated through disproportionality analysis. Within the FAERS database, a total of 29,559 skin adverse events were recorded. A robust indication of the correlation between EGFRI and elderly patients (≥65 years) was identified. Among EGFRIs, erlotinib accounted for the largest proportion of skin adverse events (39.72%). Rash, dry skin, and pruritus ranked top among all preferred terms, and signals such as rash, skin lesions, and acneiform dermatitis were detected in every single drug. Clinicians should guide patients customize the treatment plan for each patient.</p

    An effective pansharpening method based on guided filtering

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    Pansharpening is an important tool in remote sensing applications. It transforms a set of low-spatial-resolution multispectral images to high-spatial-resolution images by fusing with a co-registered high-spatial-resolution panchromatic image. To deal with the increasing high resolution satellite images, wide varieties of pansharpening techniques have been developed. In this paper, we present an effective pansharpening method based on guided filtering. The method takes advantage of the guided filter to refine the blocking edges in the upscaled multispectral images and extract sufficient high frequency details from the panchromatic image. Moreover, it can be implemented to sharpen multispectral imagery in a convenient band-by-band manner. The experimental evaluations are carried out on QuickBird satellite images. Subjective and objective evaluations show that our proposed method can achieve high spectral and spatial quality and outperforms some existing methods.</p

    Effects of temperature-related changes on charred bone in soil: From P release to microbial community

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    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most common limited nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Animal bones, with abundant bioapatite, are considerable P sources in terrestrial ecosystems. Heating significantly promotes P release from bone bioapatite, which may alleviate P limitation in soil. This study aimed to explore P release from charred bone (CB) under heating at various temperatures (based on common natural heating). It showed that heating at ∼300 °C significantly increased the P release (up to ∼30 mg/kg) from CB compared with other heating temperatures. Then, the subsequent changes of available P and pH induced evident alternation of soil microbial community composition. For instance, CB heated at ∼300 °C caused elevation of phosphate-solubilizing fungi (PSF) abundance. This further stimulated P mobility in the soil. Meanwhile, the fungal community assembly process was shifted from stochastic to deterministic, whereas the bacterial community was relatively stable. This indicated that the bacterial community showed fewer sensitive responses to the CB addition. This study hence elucidated the significant contribution of heated bone materials on P supply. Moreover, functional fungi might assist CB treated by natural heating (e.g., fire) to construct P “Hot Spots”

    A Review of Computer Vision-Based Monitoring Approaches for Construction Workers&#x2019; Work-Related Behaviors

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    Construction workers&#x2019; behaviors directly affects labor productivity and their own safety, thereby influencing project quality. Recognizing and monitoring the construction-related behaviors is therefore crucial for high-quality management and orderly construction site operation. Recent strides in computer vision technology suggest its potential to replace traditional manual supervision approaches. This paper explores research on monitoring construction workers&#x2019; behaviors using computer vision. Through bibliometrics and content-based analysis, the authors present the latest research in this area from three perspectives: &#x201C;Detection, Localization, and Tracking for Construction Workers,&#x201D; &#x201C;Recognition of Workers&#x2019; Construction Activities,&#x201D; and &#x201C;Occupational Health and Safety Behavior Monitoring.&#x201D; In terms of the literature&#x2019;s volume, there has been a notable increase in this field. Notably, the focus on safety-related literature is predominant, underscoring the concern for occupational health. Vision algorithms have witnessed an increase in the utilization of object detection. The ongoing and future research trajectory is anticipated to involve multi-algorithm integration and an emphasis on enhancing robustness. Then the authors summarize the review from engineering impact and technical suitability, and analyze the limitations of current research from the perspectives of technical approaches and application scenarios. Finally, it discusses future research directions in this field together with generative AI models. Furthermore, the authors hope this paper can serves as a valuable reference for both scholars and engineers
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