259 research outputs found

    A Review of Fluoride Removal from Groundwater

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    Most of the arid and semiarid zones of the Indian subcontinent are seriously affected by the fluorosis problem due to high concentration of the fluoride in ground water. Due to leaching of fluoride from the fluoride bearing rocks, the groundwater gets contaminated with fluoride. The different techniques for fluoride removal namely, the Activated alumina, the Nalgonda technique, bone charcoal, contact precipitation, electro-dialysis, reverse osmosis, ion-exchange, clay column, bio-adsorbents and MgO are discussed in detail. Their advantages and disadvantages together with the applicability in actual use also been discussed in the paper

    Research attitudes, practice and literacy among Kenyan palliative care healthcare professionals: an observational, crosssectional online survey

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    Background: While research is needed to advocate for implementation of global agendas to strengthen palliative care, healthcare professionals’ research literacy must improve to bridge the gap between evidence and practice. A resurgent focus on North-South power disparities, means attention should also focus on understanding low- and middle-income countries’ local agency to implement palliative care research agendas. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional online survey among Kenyan palliative healthcare professionals currently working at any of the palliative and hospice care organizations operational during January – December 2019, using descriptive statistics. Results: Among the 93 survey respondents, participants were mainly nurses (50.54%; n=47). Regarding research attitudes: all agreed/strongly agreed research was important for their professional work. Over nine-tenths (91.21%; n=83) reported having the skills to conduct research, and 91.30% (n=84) wanted to conduct research in their clinical work. 90% (90.21%; n=83) reported supervisory support to conduct research. A comparable proportion (90.22%; n=83) would undertake research if they could find funding. Regarding research practice: over two-thirds (70.65%; n=65) reported ever having had a mentor who encouraged them to do research, while approximately half (50.59%; n=43) reported reading evidence-based journal articles about once per month and attending monthly in-house meetings on palliative care (56.79%; n=46). Regarding research literacy: while over two-fifths of respondents described their current research literacy level as ‘none’ or ‘beginner’ (44.56%; n=41), a comparable proportion described it as ‘intermediate’ (45.65%; n=42), with 9 (9.78%) stating it was ‘advanced’. Conclusion: The majority of palliative healthcare professionals report having interest, skills and support at work to conduct palliative care research, with a low-to-medium level of research literacy. The current study explored palliative care staff attitudes to, experience in, and literacy with the research process, which is necessary to creating a dialogue on implementing research findings. This study also adds to the global empowerment agenda, addressing inequities in research opportunities and local capacity to own and undertake palliative care research

    Kenyan palliative care providers’ and leaders’ perceptions of palliative care research needs and support to facilitate rigorous research

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    Background: Palliative care (PC) can reduce symptom distress and improve quality of life for patients and their families experiencing life-threatening illness. While the need for PC in Kenya is high, PC service delivery and research is limited. Qualitative research is needed to explore potential areas for PC research and support needed to enable that research. This insight is critical for informing a national PC research agenda and mobilizing limited resources for conducting rigorous PC research in Kenya. Objectives: To explore perceptions of priority areas for PC research and support needed to facilitate rigorous research from the perspective of Kenyan PC providers and leaders. Methods: Focus groups (FGs) were conducted in November and December of 2018 using a semi-structured interview guide. FGs were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results: Three FGs were conducted (n = 22 participants). Ten themes related to PC research emerged, including research on: 1) beliefs about death, disease, and treatment to inform PC; 2) awareness about PC, 3) integration of PC within the health system; 4) understanding caregiver experiences and needs; 5) community health volunteers (CHVs) and volunteer programs; 6) evaluation of costs and benefits of PC; 7) treatment approaches, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and advanced diagnostics at end of life; 8) other suggestions for research, 9) populations in need of PC research; and 10) resources for enabling research. Conclusions: Kenyan PC providers and leaders identified key areas requiring increased scientific inquiry and critical resources needed to enable this research. These findings can help to focus future PC research in Kenya and encourage funding agencies to prioritize the issues identified

    Regulation of neovascularization by S-glutathionylation via the Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway

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    S-glutathionylation occurs when reactive oxygen or nitrogen species react with protein-cysteine thiols. Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a cytosolic enzyme which enzymatically catalyses the reduction in S-glutathionylation, conferring reversible signalling function to proteins with redox-sensitive thiols. Glrx can regulate vascular hypertrophy and inflammation by regulating the activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and actin polymerization. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration is inhibited by Glrx overexpression. In mice overexpressing Glrx, blood flow recovery, exercise function and capillary density were significantly attenuated after hindlimb ischaemia (HLI). Wnt5a and soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were enhanced in the ischaemic-limb muscle and plasma respectively from Glrx transgenic (TG) mice. A Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway had been described in myeloid cells controlling retinal blood vessel development. Interestingly, a Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway was found also to play a role in EC to inhibit network formation. S-glutathionylation of NF-κB components inhibits its activation. Up-regulated Glrx stimulated the Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway through enhancing NF-κB signalling. These studies show a novel role for Glrx in post-ischaemic neovascularization, which could define a potential target for therapy of impaired angiogenesis in pathological conditions including diabetes

    Glutaredoxin-1 up-regulation induces soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, attenuating post-ischemia limb revascularization

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    Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a cytosolic enzyme that regulates diverse cellular function by removal of GSH adducts from S-glutathionylated proteins including signaling molecules and transcription factors. Glrx is up-regulated during inflammation and diabetes. Glrx overexpression inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration. The aim was to investigate the role of up-regulated Glrx in EC angiogenic capacities and in vivo revascularization in the setting of hind limb ischemia. Glrx overexpressing EC from Glrx transgenic mice (TG) showed impaired migration and network formation and secreted higher level of soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt), an antagonizing factor to VEGF. After hind limb ischemia surgery Glrx TG mice demonstrated impaired blood flow recovery, associated with lower capillary density and poorer limb motor function compared to wild type littermates. There were also higher levels of anti-angiogenic sFlt expression in the muscle and plasma of Glrx TG mice after surgery. Non-canonical Wnt5a is known to induce sFlt. Wnt5a was highly expressed in ischemic muscles and EC from Glrx TG mice, and exogenous Wnt5a induced sFlt expression and inhibited network formation in human microvascular EC. Adenoviral Glrx-induced sFlt in EC was inhibited by a competitive Wnt5a inhibitor. Furthermore, Glrx overexpression removed GSH adducts on p65 in ischemic muscle and EC, and enhanced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) activity which was responsible for Wnt5a-sFlt induction. Taken together, up-regulated Glrx induces sFlt in EC via NF-kB -dependent Wnt5a, resulting in attenuated revascularization in hind limb ischemia. The Glrx-induced sFlt may be a part of mechanism of redox regulated VEGF signaling

    Compound K, a Metabolite of Ginseng Saponin, Induces Mitochondria-Dependent and Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis via the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Human Colon Cancer Cells

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    The objective of this study was to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Compound K, with respect to the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial involved apoptosis, in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Compound K exhibited a concentration of 50% growth inhibition (IC50) at 20 μg/mL and cytotoxicity in a time dependent manner. Compound K produced intracellular ROS in a time dependent fashion; however, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment resulted in the inhibition of this effect and the recovery of cell viability. Compound K induced a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway via the modulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions, resulting in the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). Loss of the Δψm was followed by cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, resulting in the activation of caspase-9, -3, and concomitant poly ADP-ribosyl polymerase (PARP) cleavage, which are the indicators of caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic effect of Compound K, exerted via the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), was abrogated by specific MAPK inhibitors. This study demonstrated that Compound K-mediated generation of ROS led to apoptosis through the modulation of a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway and MAPK pathway

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the major catechins in green tea, is a potential chemopreventive agent for various cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of EGCG on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and tumor suppression.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Cell colony formation was evaluated by a soft agar assay. Transcriptional activity of HSP70 and HSP90 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. An EGCG-HSPs complex was prepared using EGCG attached to the cyanogen bromide (CNBr)-activated Sepharose 4B. <it>In vivo </it>effect of EGCG on tumor growth was examined in a xenograft model.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Treatment with EGCG decreased cell proliferation and colony formation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. EGCG specifically inhibited the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 by inhibiting the promoter activity of HSP70 and HSP90. Pretreatment with EGCG increased the stress sensitivity of MCF-7 cells upon heat shock (44°C for 1 h) or oxidative stress (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, 500 μM for 24 h). Moreover, treatment with EGCG (10 mg/kg) in a xenograft model resulted in delayed tumor incidence and reduced tumor size, as well as the inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 expression.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Overall, these findings demonstrate that HSP70 and HSP90 are potent molecular targets of EGCG and suggest EGCG as a drug candidate for the treatment of human cancer.</p

    Redox regulation of ischemic limb neovascularization - What we have learned from animal studies

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    Mouse hindlimb ischemia has been widely used as a model to study peripheral artery disease. Genetic modulation of the enzymatic source of oxidants or components of the antioxidant system reveal that physiological levels of oxidants are essential to promote the process of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis after femoral artery occlusion, although mice with diabetes or atherosclerosis may have higher deleterious levels of oxidants. Therefore, fine control of oxidants is required to stimulate vascularization in the limb muscle. Oxidants transduce cellular signaling through oxidative modifications of redox sensitive cysteine thiols. Of particular importance, the reversible modification with abundant glutathione, called S-glutathionylation (or GSH adducts), is relatively stable and alters protein function including signaling, transcription, and cytoskeletal arrangement. Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is an enzyme which catalyzes reversal of GSH adducts, and does not scavenge oxidants itself. Glrx may control redox signaling under fluctuation of oxidants levels. In ischemic muscle increased GSH adducts through Glrx deletion improves in vivo limb revascularization, indicating endogenous Glrx has anti-angiogenic roles. In accordance, Glrx overexpression attenuates VEGF signaling in vitro and ischemic vascularization in vivo. There are several Glrx targets including HIF-1α which may contribute to inhibition of vascularization by reducing GSH adducts. These animal studies provide a caution that excess antioxidants may be counter-productive for treatment of ischemic limbs, and highlights Glrx as a potential therapeutic target to improve ischemic limb vascularization

    Glutaredoxin-1 Overexpression Enhances Neovascularization and Diminishes Ventricular Remodeling in Chronic Myocardial Infarction

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    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiac failure, including the modulation of neovascularization following myocardial infarction (MI). Redox molecules thioredoxin (Trx) and glutaredoxin (Grx) superfamilies actively maintain intracellular thiol-redox homeostasis by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Among these two superfamilies, the pro-angiogenic function of Trx-1 has been reported in chronic MI model whereas similar role of Grx-1 remains uncertain. The present study attempts to establish the role of Grx-1 in neovascularization and ventricular remodeling following MI. Wild-type (WT) and Grx-1 transgenic (Grx-1Tg/+) mice were randomized into wild-type sham (WTS), Grx-1Tg/+ Sham (Grx-1Tg/+S), WTMI, Grx-1Tg/+MI. MI was induced by permanent occlusion of the LAD coronary artery. Sham groups underwent identical time-matched surgical procedures without LAD ligation. Significant increase in arteriolar density was observed 7 days (d) after surgical intervention in the Grx-1Tg/+MI group as compared to the WTMI animals. Further, improvement in myocardial functional parameters 30 d after MI was observed including decreased LVIDs, LVIDd, increased ejection fraction and, fractional shortening was also observed in the Grx-1Tg/+MI group as compared to the WTMI animals. Moreover, attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptotic cardiomyocytes was observed in the Grx-1Tg/+MI group as compared to the WTMI animals. Increased expression of p-Akt, VEGF, Ang-1, Bcl-2, survivin and DNA binding activity of NF-κB were observed in the Grx-1Tg/+MI group when compared to WTMI animals as revealed by Western blot analysis and Gel-shift analysis, respectively. These results are the first to demonstrate that Grx-1 induces angiogenesis and diminishes ventricular remodeling apparently through neovascularization mediated by Akt, VEGF, Ang-1 and NF-κB as well as Bcl-2 and survivin-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway in the infarcted myocardium

    Screening for Active Small Molecules in Mitochondrial Complex I Deficient Patient's Fibroblasts, Reveals AICAR as the Most Beneficial Compound

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    Congenital deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (CI) is a common defect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Despite major advances in the biochemical and molecular diagnostics and the deciphering of CI structure, function assembly and pathomechanism, there is currently no satisfactory cure for patients with mitochondrial complex I defects. Small molecules provide one feasible therapeutic option, however their use has not been systematically evaluated using a standardized experimental system. In order to evaluate potentially therapeutic compounds, we set up a relatively simple system measuring different parameters using only a small amount of patient's fibroblasts, in glucose free medium, where growth is highly OXPOS dependent. Ten different compounds were screened using fibroblasts derived from seven CI patients, harboring different mutations
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