544 research outputs found

    The Reform of Employee Compensation in China’s Industrial Enterprises

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    Although employee compensation reform in Chinese industrial sector has been discussed in the literature, the real changes in compensation system and pay practices have received insufficient attention and warrant further examination. This paper briefly reviews the pre- and post-reform compensation system, and reports the results of a survey of pay practices in the four major types of industrial enterprises in China. The research findings indicate that the type of enterprise ownership has little influence on general compensation practices, adoption of profit-sharing plans, and subsidy and allowance packages. In general, pay is linked more to individual performance and has become an important incentive to Chinese employees. However, differences are found across the enterprise types with regard to performance-related pay. Current pay practices are positively correlated to overall effectiveness of the enterprise

    Astragalus Polysaccharides Attenuate Postburn Sepsis via Inhibiting Negative Immunoregulation of CD4+CD25high T Cells

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    BACKGROUND: Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) isolated from one of the Chinese herbs, Astragalus mongholicus, are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory activities. However, it is not yet clear whether APS can exert an effect on the immune functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs). This study was carried out to investigate the effect of APS on the immune function of peripheral blood Tregs in postburn sepsis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/C mice were randomly divided into six groups as follows: sham burn group, burn control (burn without infection animals) group, burn plus P. aeruginosa group, burn plus P. aeruginosa with APS (50 mg/kg) treatment group, burn plus P. aeruginosa with APS (100 mg/kg) treatment group, and burn plus P. aeruginosa with APS (200 mg/kg) treatment group, and they were sacrificed on postburn day 1, 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with seven animals at each time point. Magnetic microbeads were used to isolate peripheral blood Tregs and CD4(+) T cells. Phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry, and cytokine levels were determined with ELISA. In the burn plus P. aeruginosa group, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) expression on CD4(+)CD25(+)Tregs were strongly enhanced in comparison to the sham group, and the capacity of CD4(+)CD25(+)Tregs to produce interleukin (IL)-10 was markedly increased. Administration of APS to inhibit CD4(+)CD25(+)Tregs could significantly decrease expression of Foxp3 on CD4(+)CD25(+)Tregs, and IL-10 production in burned mice with P. aeruginosa infection. At the same time, proliferative activity and expression of IL-2 and IL-2Rα on CD4(+) T cells were restored. In contrast, anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antibody could block the effect of APS on Tregs immune function. CONCLUSION: APS might suppress CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg activity, at least in part, via binding TLR4 on Tregs and trigger a shift of Th2 to Th1 with activation of CD4(+) T cells in burned mice with P. aeruginosa infection

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb−1 of √ s = 8 TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with pT > 120 GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between Emiss T > 150 GeV and Emiss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presente

    Genome Sequence of the Versatile Fish Pathogen Edwardsiella tarda Provides Insights into its Adaptation to Broad Host Ranges and Intracellular Niches

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    BACKGROUND:Edwardsiella tarda is the etiologic agent of edwardsiellosis, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries. Here we describe the complete genome of E. tarda, EIB202, a highly virulent and multi-drug resistant isolate in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:E. tarda EIB202 possesses a single chromosome of 3,760,463 base pairs containing 3,486 predicted protein coding sequences, 8 ribosomal rRNA operons, and 95 tRNA genes, and a 43,703 bp conjugative plasmid harboring multi-drug resistant determinants and encoding type IV A secretion system components. We identified a full spectrum of genetic properties related to its genome plasticity such as repeated sequences, insertion sequences, phage-like proteins, integrases, recombinases and genomic islands. In addition, analysis also indicated that a substantial proportion of the E. tarda genome might be devoted to the growth and survival under diverse conditions including intracellular niches, with a large number of aerobic or anaerobic respiration-associated proteins, signal transduction proteins as well as proteins involved in various stress adaptations. A pool of genes for secretion systems, pili formation, nonfimbrial adhesions, invasions and hemagglutinins, chondroitinases, hemolysins, iron scavenging systems as well as the incomplete flagellar biogenesis might feature its surface structures and pathogenesis in a fish body. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE:Genomic analysis of the bacterium offered insights into the phylogeny, metabolism, drug-resistance, stress adaptation, and virulence characteristics of this versatile pathogen, which constitutes an important first step in understanding the pathogenesis of E. tarda to facilitate construction of a practical effective vaccine used for combating fish edwardsiellosis

    MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase 2 Is Required for Mouse Meiotic Spindle Assembly and Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachment

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    MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a direct substrate of p38 MAPK, plays key roles in multiple physiological functions in mitosis. Here, we show for the first time the unique distribution pattern of MK2 in meiosis. Phospho-MK2 was localized on bipolar spindle minus ends and along the interstitial axes of homologous chromosomes extending over centromere regions and arm regions at metaphase of first meiosis (MI stage) in mouse oocytes. At metaphase of second meiosis (MII stage), p-MK2 was localized on the bipolar spindle minus ends and at the inner centromere region of sister chromatids as dots. Knockdown or inhibition of MK2 resulted in spindle defects. Spindles were surrounded by irregular nondisjunction chromosomes, which were arranged in an amphitelic or syntelic/monotelic manner, or chromosomes detached from the spindles. Kinetochore–microtubule attachments were impaired in MK2-deficient oocytes because spindle microtubules became unstable in response to cold treatment. In addition, homologous chromosome segregation and meiosis progression were inhibited in these oocytes. Our data suggest that MK2 may be essential for functional meiotic bipolar spindle formation, chromosome segregation and proper kinetochore–microtubule attachments

    Centrality and transverse momentum dependence of D-0-meson production at mid-rapidity in Au plus Au collisions ats root S-NN=200 GeV

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    Collision-energy dependence of p(t) correlations in Au plus Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

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