964 research outputs found

    Isolation of flavonoids from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves with macroporous resins

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    Flavonoids are major active constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and possess various pharmacological activities. In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation oftotal flavonoids (TFs) in mulberry leaves extracts by macroporous resins were studied systematically, and the column packed with selected resin was used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorptiontests to optimize the separation process. The research results indicated that the maximal yield of TFs was achieved when mulberry leaves were extracted under the optimized conditions of a pH of 8, asolid-liquid ratio of 1:40, a temperature of 90oC and a time of 4 h. H103 resin is the most appropriate for the separation of TFs from other components in mulberry leaves extracts, which adsorption behavior canbe described with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two-step adsorption kinetics model. The optimum parameters for TFs separation by H103 were achieved, after one run treatment. The recoveryand purity of TFs in the final product were 90.57 and 76.33%, respectively. In conclusion, the preparative separation of TFs in mulberry leaves can be easily and effectively done by H103 resin

    Insights from Modeling the 3D Structure of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamse and Its Binding Interactions with Antibiotic Drugs

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    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotic drugs. This is because it can inactivate most beta-lactam antibiotic drugs by hydrolyzing them. For in-depth understanding of the hydrolysis mechanism, the three-dimensional structure of NDM-1 was developed. With such a structural frame, two enzyme-ligand complexes were derived by respectively docking Imipenem and Meropenem (two typical beta-lactam antibiotic drugs) to the NDM-1 receptor. It was revealed from the NDM-1/Imipenem complex that the antibiotic drug was hydrolyzed while sitting in a binding pocket of NDM-1 formed by nine residues. And for the case of NDM-1/Meropenem complex, the antibiotic drug was hydrolyzed in a binding pocket formed by twelve residues. All these constituent residues of the two binding pockets were explicitly defined and graphically labeled. It is anticipated that the findings reported here may provide useful insights for developing new antibiotic drugs to overcome the resistance problem

    SIK1/SOS2 networks: decoding sodium signals via calcium-responsive protein kinase pathways

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    Changes in cellular ion levels can modulate distinct signaling networks aimed at correcting major disruptions in ion balances that might otherwise threaten cell growth and development. Salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and salt overly sensitive 2 (SOS2) are key protein kinases within such networks in mammalian and plant cells, respectively. In animals, SIK1 expression and activity are regulated in response to the salt content of the diet, and in plants SOS2 activity is controlled by the salinity of the soil. The specific ionic stress (elevated intracellular sodium) is followed by changes in intracellular calcium; the calcium signals are sensed by calcium-binding proteins and lead to activation of SIK1 or SOS2. These kinases target major plasma membrane transporters such as the Na+,K+-ATPase in mammalian cells, and Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane and membranes of intracellular vacuoles of plant cells. Activation of these networks prevents abnormal increases in intracellular sodium concentration

    Graphite flake self-retraction response based on potential seeking

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    The high elastic modulus and interlayer strengths of graphite flakes make them a durable solid superlubricant. Apart from this, they have configurable electrical properties, exhibit quantum Hall effects, and possess a myriad of useful photonic properties. The self-retraction behavior of graphite flakes can have significant impact on the creation of ordered stacks for various applications because any accidental or intentional displacement of the top flake over the stacks below may result in a misalignment of the carbon-carbon atomic arrangement which, in turn, can have influence over the electrical and photonic properties. It has also been revealed that there was a tendency of the displaced microflake to fail at times to return to its original starting position and orientation. Here, we elucidate this behavior by considering the influence of the interlayer potential forces based on minimal potential energy seeking. The maps of the parameters interrogated here provide the ability for precautions to be undertaken. They also potentially permit the creation of an array of microflake stacks in which the metastable states permit different information to be encoded by virtue of the differentiated photonic or electrical characteristics readable from each array site

    Choroidal thickness in school children: The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study

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    Differentiation-inducing and anti-proliferative activities of isoliquiritigenin and all-trans-retinoic acid on B16F0 melanoma cells: Mechanisms profiling by RNA-seq

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    Melanoma is a cancer that arises from melanocytes, specialized pigmented cells that are found predominantly in the skin. The incidence of malignant melanoma has significantly increased over the last decade. With the development of therapy, the survival rate of some kind of cancer has been improved greatly. But the treatment of melanoma remains unsatisfactory. Much of melanoma's resistance to traditional chemotherapy is believed to arise intrinsically, by virtue of potent growth and cell survival-promoting genetic alteration. Therefore, significant attention has recently been focused on differentiation, therapy, as well as differentiation inducer compounds. In previous study, we found isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a natural product extracted from licorice, could induce B16F0 melanoma cell differentiation. Here we investigated the transcriptional response of melanoma differentiation process induced by ISL and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). Results showed that 390 genes involves in 201 biochemical pathways were differentially expressed in ISL treatment and 304 genes in 193 pathways in RA treatment. Differential expressed genes (DGEs, fold-change (FC) >= 10) with the function of anti-proliferative and differentiation inducing indicated a loss of grade malignancy characteristic. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated glutathione metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathway were the top three relative pathway perturbed by ISL, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was the most important pathway in RA treatment. In the analysis of hierarchical clustering of DEGs, we discovered 72 DEGs involved in the process of drug action. We thought Cited1, Tgm2, Xaf1, Cd59a, Fbxo2, Adh7 may have critical role in the differentiation of melanoma. The evidence displayed herein confirms the critical role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melanoma pathobiology and provides evidence for future targets in the development of next-generation biomarkers and therapeutics. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved