400 research outputs found

    Five-year trends in antiretroviral usage and drug costs in HIV-infected children in Thailand.

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    BACKGROUND: As antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs mature, data on drug utilization and costs are needed to assess durability of treatments and inform program planning. METHODS: Children initiating ART were followed up in an observational cohort in Thailand. Treatment histories from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. Treatment changes were categorized as: drug substitution (within class), switch across drug class (non nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) to/from protease inhibitor (PI)), and to salvage therapy (dual PI or PI and NNRTI). Antiretroviral drug costs were calculated in 6-month cycles (US2009prices).PredictorsofhighdrugcostincludingcharacteristicsatstartofART(baseline),initialregimen,treatmentchange,anddurationonARTwereassessedusingmixed−effectsregressionmodels.RESULTS:FivehundredsevenchildreninitiatedARTwithamedian54(interquartilerange,36−72)monthsoffollow−up.Fifty−twopercenthadadrugsubstitution,21 2009 prices). Predictors of high drug cost including characteristics at start of ART (baseline), initial regimen, treatment change, and duration on ART were assessed using mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: Five hundred seven children initiated ART with a median 54 (interquartile range, 36-72) months of follow-up. Fifty-two percent had a drug substitution, 21% switched across class, and 2% to salvage therapy. When allowing for drug substitution, 78% remained on their initial regimen. Mean drug cost increased from 251 to $428 per child per year in the first and fifth year of therapy, respectively. PI-based and salvage regimens accounted for 16% and 2% of treatments prescribed and 33% and 5% of total costs, respectively. Predictors of high cost include baseline age ≄ 8 years, non nevirapine-based initial regimen, switch across drug class, and to salvage regimen (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 5 years, 21% of children switched across drug class and 2% received salvage therapy. The mean drug cost increased by 70%. Access to affordable second- and third-line drugs is essential for the sustainability of treatment programs

    Immunologic and virologic failure after first-line NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy in Thai HIV-infected children

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>There are limited data of immunologic and virologic failure in Asian HIV-infected children using non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We examined the incidence rate of immunologic failure (IF) and virologic failure (VF) and the accuracy of using IF to predict VF in Thai HIV-infected children using first-line NNRTI-based HAART.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Antiretroviral (ART)-naĂŻve HIV-infected children from 2 prospective cohorts treated with NNRTI-based HAART during 2001-2008 were included. CD4 counts were performed every 12 weeks and plasma HIV-RNA measured every 24 weeks. Immune recovery was defined as CD4%≄25%. IF was defined as persistent decline of ≄5% in CD4% in children with CD4%<15% at baseline or decrease in CD4 count ≄30% from baseline. VF was defined as HIV-RNA>1,000 copies/ml after at least 24 weeks of HAART. Clinical and laboratory parameter changes were assessed using a paired t-test, and a time to event approach was used to assess predictors of VF. Sensitivity and specificity of IF were calculated against VF.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>107 ART-naive HIV-infected children were included, 52% female, % CDC clinical classification N:A:B:C 4:44:30:22%. Baseline data were median (IQR) age 6.2 (4.2-8.9) years, CD4% 7 (3-15), HIV-RNA 5.0 (4.9-5.5) log<sub>10</sub>copies/ml. Nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV)-based HAART were started in 70% and 30%, respectively.</p> <p>At 96 weeks, none had progressed to a CDC clinical classification of AIDS and one had died from pneumonia. Overall, significant improvement of weight for age z-score (p = 0.014), height for age z-score, hemoglobin, and CD4 were seen (all p < 0.001). The median (IQR) CD4% at 96 weeks was 25 (18-30)%. Eighty-nine percent of children had immune recovery (CD4%≄25%) and 75% of children had HIV-RNA <1.7log<sub>10</sub>copies/ml.</p> <p>Thirty five (32.7%) children experienced VF within 96 weeks. Of these, 24 (68.6%) and 31 (88.6%) children had VF in the first 24 and 48 weeks respectively.</p> <p>Only 1 (0.9%) child experienced IF within 96 weeks and the sensitivity (95%CI) of IF to VF was 4 (0.1-20.4)% and specificity was 100 (93.9-100)%.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Immunologic failure, as defined here, had low sensitivity compared to VF and should not be recommended to detect treatment failure. Plasma HIV-RNA should be performed twice, at weeks 24 and 48, to detect early treatment failure.</p> <p>Trial Registration</p> <p><b>Clinicaltrials.gov identification number </b><a href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00476606">NCT00476606</a></p

    A Retrospective Survey of HIV Drug Resistance Among Patients 1 Year After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy at 4 Clinics in Malawi

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    In 2004, Malawi began scaling up its national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. Because of limited treatment options, population-level surveillance of acquired human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) is critical to ensuring long-term treatment success. The World Health Organization target for clinic-level HIVDR prevention at 12 months after ART initiation is ≄ 70%. In 2007, viral load and HIVDR genotyping was performed in a retrospective cohort of 596 patients at 4 ART clinics. Overall, HIVDR prevention (using viral load ≀ 400 copies/mL) was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-77%; range by site, 60%-83%) and detected HIVDR was 3.4% (95% CI, 1.8%-5.8%; range by site, 2.5%-4.7%). Results demonstrate virological suppression and HIVDR consistent with previous reports from sub-Saharan Africa. High rates of attrition because of loss to follow-up were noted and merit attention

    Post-licensure, phase IV, safety study of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis recombinant vaccine in children in Thailand

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    AbstractBackgroundJapanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in most countries in Asia. A recombinant live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine, JE-CV, is licensed in 14 countries, including Thailand, for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis in adults and children.MethodsThis was a prospective, phase IV, open-label, multicentre, safety study of JE-CV conducted from November 2013 to April 2015, to evaluate rare serious adverse events (AEs). JE-CV was administered to 10,000 healthy children aged 9months to <5years in Thailand as a primary (Group 1) or booster (Group 2) vaccination. Serious AEs (SAEs), including AEs of special interest, up to 60days after administration were evaluated. Immediate Grade 3 systemic AEs up to 30min after JE-CV administration were also described.ResultsThe median age of participants was 1.1years in Group 1 and 3.8years in Group 2. SAEs were reported in 204 (3.0%) participants in Group 1 and 59 (1.9%) participants in Group 2. Among a total of 294 SAEs in 263 participants, only three events occurring in two participants were considered related to vaccination. All three cases were moderate urticaria, none of which met the definition of AEs of special interest for hypersensitivity. AEs of special interest were reported in 28 (0.4%) participants in Group 1 and 4 (0.1%) participants in Group 2; none were considered related to vaccination. Febrile convulsion was the most frequently reported AE of special interest: 25 (0.4%) participants in Group 1; and 2 (<0.1%) in Group 2. There were no cases of Japanese encephalitis reported. No Grade 3 immediate systemic AEs were reported after any JE-CV vaccination.ConclusionsOur study did not identify any new safety concerns with JE-CV and confirms its good safety profile.This study was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01981967; Universal Trial Number: U1111-1127-7052)

    Medication diaries do not improve outcomes with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Kenyan children: a randomized clinical trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) becomes increasingly available to African children, it is important to evaluate simple and feasible methods of improving adherence in order to maximize benefits of therapy.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>HIV-1-infected children initiating World Health Organization non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase-inhibitor-containing first-line HAART regimens were randomized to use medication diaries plus counselling, or counselling only (the control arm of the study). The diaries were completed daily by caregivers of children randomized to the diary and counselling arm for nine months. HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ T cell count, and z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were measured at a baseline and every three to six months. Self-reported adherence was assessed by questionnaires for nine months.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Ninety HIV-1-infected children initiated HAART, and were followed for a median of 15 months (interquartile range: 2–21). Mean CD4 percentage was 17.2% in the diary arm versus 16.3% in the control arm at six months (p = 0.92), and 17.6% versus 18.9% at 15 months (p = 0.36). Virologic response with HIV-1 RNA of <100 copies/ml at nine months was similar between the two arms (50% for the diary arm and 36% for the control, p = 0.83). The weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height at three, nine and 15 months after HAART initiation were similar between arms. A trend towards lower self-reported adherence was observed in the diary versus the control arm (85% versus 92%, p = 0.08).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Medication diaries did not improve clinical and virologic response to HAART over a 15-month period. Children had good adherence and clinical response without additional interventions. This suggests that paediatric HAART with conventional counselling can be a successful approach. Further studies on targeted approaches for non-adherent children will be important.</p

    Sustained Immunogenicity of 2-dose Human Papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted Vaccine Schedules in Girls Aged 9-14 Years: A Randomized Trial

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    Background: We previously reported the noninferiority 1 month after the last dose of 2-dose human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine schedules at months 0 and 6 (2D_M0,6) and months 0 and 12 (2D_M0,12) in girls aged 9-14 years compared with a 3-dose schedule at months 0, 1, and 6 (3D_M0,1,6) in women aged 15-25 years. Here, we report the results at study end (month 36 [M36]).Methods: Girls were randomized 1:1 and received 2 vaccine doses either 6 months (2D_M0,6) or 12 months apart (2D_M0,12); women received 3 doses at months 0, 1, and 6 (3D_M0,1,6). Endpoints included noninferiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies for 2D_M0,6 versus 3D_M0,1,6; 2D_M0,12 versus 3D_M0,1,6; and 2D_M0,12 versus 2D_M0,6; and assessment of neutralizing antibodies, T cells, B cells, and safety.Results: At M36, the 2D_M0,6 and 2D_M0,12 schedules remained noninferior to the 3D_M0,1,6 schedule in terms of seroconversion rates and 3D/2D geometric mean titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18. All schedules elicited sustained immune responses up to M36.Conclusions: Both 2-dose schedules in young girls remained noninferior to the 3-dose schedule in women up to study conclusion at M36. The AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine administered as a 2-dose schedule was immunogenic and well tolerated in young girls

    Computed CD4 percentage as a low-cost method for determining pediatric antiretroviral treatment eligibility

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The performance of the WHO recommendations for pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource poor settings is insufficiently documented in routine care.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We compared clinical and immunological criteria in 366 children aged 0 to 12 years in Kinshasa and evaluated a simple computation to estimate CD4 percent, based on CD4 count, total white blood cell count and percentage lymphocytes. Kappa (Îș) statistic was used to evaluate eligibility criteria and linear regression to determine trends of CD4 percent, count and total lymphocyte count (TLC).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Agreement between clinical and immunological eligibility criteria was poor (Îș = 0.26). One third of children clinically eligible for ART were ineligible using immunological criteria; one third of children immunologically eligible were ineligible using clinical criteria. Among children presenting in WHO stage I or II, 54 (32%) were eligible according to immunological criteria. Agreement with CD4 percent was poor for TLC (Îș = 0.04), fair for total CD4 count (Îș = 0.39) and substantial for CD4 percent computational estimate (Îș = 0.71). Among 5 to 12 years old children, total CD4 count was higher in younger age groups (-32 cells/mm<sup>3 </sup>per year older), CD4 percent was similar across age groups.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Age-specific thresholds for CD4 percent optimally determine pediatric ART eligibility. The use of CD4 percent computational estimate may increase ART access in settings with limited access to CD4 percent assays.</p

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome from Penicillium marneffei in an HIV-infected child: a case report and review of literature

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Backgrounds</p> <p>Disseminated <it>Penicillium marneffei </it>infection is one of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections in Southeast Asia. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a complication related to antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced immune restoration. The aim of this report is to present a case of HIV-infected child who developed an unmasking type of IRIS caused by disseminated <it>P. marneffei </it>infection after ART initiation.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>A 14-year-old Thai HIV-infected girl presented with high-grade fever, multiple painful ulcerated oral lesions, generalized non-pruritic erythrematous skin papules and nodules with central umbilication, and multiple swollen, warm, and tender joints 8 weeks after ART initiation. At that time, her CD4<sup>+ </sup>cell count was 7.2% or 39 cells/mm<sup>3</sup>. On admission, her repeated CD4<sup>+ </sup>cell count was 11% or 51 cells/mm<sup>3 </sup>and her plasma HIV-RNA level was < 50 copies/mL. Her skin biopsy showed necrotizing histiocytic granuloma formation with neutrophilic infiltration in the upper and reticular dermis. Tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) stain revealed numerous intracellular and extracellular, round to oval, elongated, thin-walled yeast cells with central septation. The hemoculture, bone marrow culture, and skin culture revealed no growth of fungus or bacteria. Our patient responded well to intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral itraconazole. She fully recovered after 4-month antifungal treatment without evidence of recurrence of disease.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>IRIS from <it>P. marneffei </it>in HIV-infected people is rare. Appropriate recognition and properly treatment is important for a good prognosis.</p