2,705 research outputs found

    Hodgkin's disease: subsequent primary cancers in relation to treatment.

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    A consecutive series of 2,999 patients, diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease (HD) between 1950 and 1979, was assembled from the records of the Birmingham and West Midlands Cancer Registry and followed to the end of 1984. Cohort analyses of subsequent primary cancers among 1,976 patients, surviving one or more years (mean follow-up 6.7 person-years), were carried out in relation to overall treatment by radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT) or both modalities (CT + RT). Over all sites a 50% increase in risk, relative to the West Midlands population, was found [observed (O) = 65; relative risk (RR) = 1.5; P less than 0.01]. Among patients treated by CT (with or without RT) a significant increase in acute and non-lymphocytic leukaemias was found (O = 6; RR = 30.0; P less than 0.001). The excess risk was of the order of 1 per 1000 patient-years and the cumulative risk was 1.2%. Among solid tumours increased risks, which might be attributable to RT, occurred in the lung (O = 15; RR = 1.6; P less than 0.05), breast (O = 9; RR = 2.2; P less than 0.05) and bone (O = 2; RR = 20.0; P less than 0.01). The excess of skin cancers (O = 13; RR = 2.9; P less than 0.01) occurred mainly within 10 years of treatment with CT. The follow-up period is still insufficient to determine the long-term effect on the incidence of solid tumours with long latent periods from multiple-agent CT which became more frequently used in the early 1970s. A sub-set of these data was analysed over all treatments and the results were contributed to an international study co-ordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon

    Transport enhancement from incoherent coupling between one-dimensional quantum conductors

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    We study the non-equilibrium transport properties of a highly anisotropic two-dimensional lattice of spin-1/2 particles governed by a Heisenberg XXZ Hamiltonian. The anisotropy of the lattice allows us to approximate the system at finite temperature as an array of incoherently coupled one-dimensional chains. We show that in the regime of strong intrachain interactions, the weak interchain coupling considerably boosts spin transport in the driven system. Interestingly, we show that this enhancement increases with the length of the chains, which is related to superdiffusive spin transport. We describe the mechanism behind this effect, compare it to a similar phenomenon in single chains induced by dephasing, and explain why the former is much stronger

    Industrial ecology and carbon property rights

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    This paper examines the potential for property rights in carbon to affect industrial ecology opportunities. Given that emissions trading schemes for greenhouse gases are becoming more widely implemented, the definition of the carbon property right can affect barriers and opportunities for industrial ecology, alongside other factors. The paper uses legislation for emissions trading in Australia and two possible scenarios for the future of energy generation in the Latrobe Valley, Australia in 2050 as an illustrative case study to identify issues for industrial ecology arising from ill-defined carbon property rights. Currently, electricity generation in the region is reliant on coal-based generators. Scenario one focuses on bio-industries and renewables with no coal usage; and scenario two focuses on electricity from coal with carbon capture and storage resulting in moderate to high coal use. If a carbon property right for soil carbon emerges before a property right for subterranean carbon, then bio-based industrial ecology opportunities could be enabled ahead of a regional symbiosis involving carbon capture and storage. A generalised framework for considering the intersection of industrial ecology and carbon property rights is presented with a focus on tensions in: contributing to sustainable development, system boundaries and finally exchange mechanisms. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Synthesis and antibacterial effects of cobalt–cellulose magnetic nanocomposites

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    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Green synthesis is employed to prepare cobalt/cellulose nanocomposites with cubic (α-cobalt) cobalt as a main component with antibacterial and magnetic properties. An in situ reduction of aqueous solutions of cobalt ions on a model cellulose substrate surface using hydrogen gas affords spherical, cellulose-stabilised cobalt nanoclusters with magnetic properties and an average diameter of 7 nm that are distributed evenly over the surface of the cellulose fibres. These cobalt/cellulose nanocomposites exhibit good antibacterial action against opportunistic pathogens both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa), with zones of inhibition up to 15 mm, thereby encouraging the deployment of these advanced materials for the treatment of wastewater or within medical dressings. This method of preparation is compared with the analogous in situ reduction of cobalt ions on a cellulose surface using sodium borohydride as reducing agent