931 research outputs found

    Cryogenic characterization of Hamamatsu HWB MPPCs for the DUNE photon detection system

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    International audienceThe Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a nextgeneration experiment aimed to study neutrino oscillation. Itslong-baseline configuration will exploit a Near Detector (ND) and aFar Detector (FD) located at a distance of ∌1300 km. The FDwill consist of four Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC)modules. A Photon Detection System (PDS) will be used to detect thescintillation light produced inside the detector after neutrinointeractions. The PDS will be based on light collectors coupled toSilicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). Different photosensortechnologies have been proposed and produced in order to identifythe best samples to fullfill the experiment requirements. In thispaper, we present the procedure and results of a validation campaignfor the Hole Wire Bonding (HWB) MPPCs samples produced by HamamatsuPhotonics K.K. (HPK) for the DUNE experiment, referring to them as`SiPMs'. The protocol for a characterization at cryogenictemperature (77 K) is reported. We present the down-selectioncriteria and the results obtained during the selection campaignundertaken, along with a study of the main sources of noise of theSiPMs including the investigation of a newly observed phenomenon inthis field

    Cryogenic characterization of Hamamatsu HWB MPPCs for the DUNE photon detection system

    No full text
    International audienceThe Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a nextgeneration experiment aimed to study neutrino oscillation. Itslong-baseline configuration will exploit a Near Detector (ND) and aFar Detector (FD) located at a distance of ∌1300 km. The FDwill consist of four Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC)modules. A Photon Detection System (PDS) will be used to detect thescintillation light produced inside the detector after neutrinointeractions. The PDS will be based on light collectors coupled toSilicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). Different photosensortechnologies have been proposed and produced in order to identifythe best samples to fullfill the experiment requirements. In thispaper, we present the procedure and results of a validation campaignfor the Hole Wire Bonding (HWB) MPPCs samples produced by HamamatsuPhotonics K.K. (HPK) for the DUNE experiment, referring to them as`SiPMs'. The protocol for a characterization at cryogenictemperature (77 K) is reported. We present the down-selectioncriteria and the results obtained during the selection campaignundertaken, along with a study of the main sources of noise of theSiPMs including the investigation of a newly observed phenomenon inthis field

    Design and performance of the ENUBET monitored neutrino beam

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    The ENUBET project is aimed at designing and experimentally demonstrating the concept of monitored neutrino beams. These novel beams are enhanced by an instrumented decay tunnel, whose detectors reconstruct large-angle charged leptons produced in the tunnel and give a direct estimate of the neutrino flux at the source. These facilities are thus the ideal tool for high-precision neutrino cross-section measurements at the GeV scale because they offer superior control of beam systematics with respect to existing facilities. In this paper, we present the first end-to-end design of a monitored neutrino beam capable of monitoring lepton production at the single particle level. This goal is achieved by a new focusing system without magnetic horns, a 20 m normal-conducting transfer line for charge and momentum selection, and a 40 m tunnel instrumented with cost-effective particle detectors. Employing such a design, we show that percent precision in cross-section measurements can be achieved at the CERN SPS complex with existing neutrino detectors

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

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    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 10^3 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Time Dependence of 50-250 MeV Galactic Cosmic-Ray Protons between Solar Cycles 24 and 25, Measured by the High-energy Particle Detector on board the CSES-01 Satellite

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    Time-dependent energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) carry crucial information regarding their origin and propagation throughout the interstellar environment. When observed at the Earth, after traversing the interplanetary medium, such spectra are heavily affected by the solar wind and the embedded solar magnetic field permeating the inner sectors of the heliosphere. The activity of the Sun changes significantly over an 11 yr solar cycle—and so does the effect on cosmic particles; this translates into a phenomenon called solar modulation. Moreover, GCR spectra during different epochs of solar activity provide invaluable information for a complete understanding of the plethora of mechanisms taking place in various layers of the Sun’s atmosphere and how they evolve over time. The High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD-01) has been continuously collecting data since 2018 August, during the quiet phase between solar cycles 24 and 25; the activity of the Sun is slowly but steadily rising and is expected to peak around 2025/2026. In this paper, we present the first spectra for ∌50-250 MeV galactic protons measured by the HEPD-01 instrument—placed on board the CSES-01 satellite—from 2018 August to 2022 March over a one-Carrington-rotation time basis. Such data are compared to the ones from other spaceborne experiments, present (e.g., EPHIN, Parker Solar Probe) and past (PAMELA), and to a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model describing the GCRs propagation through the heliosphere

    ICARUS at the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino program: initial operation

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    Abstract The ICARUS collaboration employed the 760-ton T600 detector in a successful 3-year physics run at the underground LNGS laboratory, performing a sensitive search for LSND-like anomalous Μe\nu _e Μ e appearance in the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso beam, which contributed to the constraints on the allowed neutrino oscillation parameters to a narrow region around 1 eV 2^2 2 . After a significant overhaul at CERN, the T600 detector has been installed at Fermilab. In 2020 the cryogenic commissioning began with detector cool down, liquid argon filling and recirculation. ICARUS then started its operations collecting the first neutrino events from the booster neutrino beam (BNB) and the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam off-axis, which were used to test the ICARUS event selection, reconstruction and analysis algorithms. ICARUS successfully completed its commissioning phase in June 2022. The first goal of the ICARUS data taking will be a study to either confirm or refute the claim by Neutrino-4 short-baseline reactor experiment. ICARUS will also perform measurement of neutrino cross sections with the NuMI beam and several Beyond Standard Model searches. After the first year of operations, ICARUS will search for evidence of sterile neutrinos jointly with the Short-Baseline Near Detector, within the Short-Baseline Neutrino program. In this paper, the main activities carried out during the overhauling and installation phases are highlighted. Preliminary technical results from the ICARUS commissioning data with the BNB and NuMI beams are presented both in terms of performance of all ICARUS subsystems and of capability to select and reconstruct neutrino events

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

    No full text
    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 103 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Identification and reconstruction of low-energy electrons in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector