48 research outputs found

    Identification of wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome surgery (CACTuS)

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    AIMS: Wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is an infiltrative cardiomyopathy with a poor prognosis. The condition is associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which often precedes the ATTRwt diagnosis by several years. The aim of the study was (i) to screen patients with a recent history of CTS for ATTRwt using red flags, (ii) to determine whether patients with screened ATTRwt had less advanced disease compared with patients with clinical ATTRwt, and (iii) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of known red flags in ATTRwt. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients aged ≥60 years at the time of CTS surgery were invited for screening. Red flags were defined as elevated biomarker levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) or cardiac troponin, an electrocardiogram pattern associated with ATTRwt, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and impaired longitudinal strain with apical sparring. All patients with a red flag were referred for a diagnostic scintigraphy. Patients with ATTRwt diagnosed by screening were compared with patients with clinical ATTRwt (n = 51) matched by age, gender, and CTS surgery. Among the 120 enrolled subjects (mean age 74.5 years, 90% male), the suspicion of ATTR was raised in 67 (55.8%), and 10 (8.3%) were diagnosed with ATTRwt. Patients identified with ATTRwt were predominantly asymptomatic and had mildly elevated NT-proBNP, mildly increased LVH, preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, and systolic longitudinal function, which differed significantly from clinical ATTRwt controls (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The study found an ATTRwt prevalence of 8.3% in a population of age and gender-selected patients with a recent history of CTS. The identified patients with ATTRwt had less structural and functional cardiac involvement than clinical ATTRwt controls

    Influence of oxygen tension on myocardial performance. Evaluation by tissue Doppler imaging

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    BACKGROUND: Low O(2 )tension dilates coronary arteries and high O(2 )tension is a coronary vasoconstrictor but reports on O(2)-dependent effects on ventricular performance diverge. Yet oxygen supplementation remains first line treatment in cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that hypoxia improves and hyperoxia worsens myocardial performance. METHODS: Seven male volunteers (mean age 38 ± 3 years) were examined with echocardiography at respiratory equilibrium during: 1) normoxia (≈21% O(2), 79% N(2)), 2) while inhaling a hypoxic gas mixture (≈11% O(2), 89% N(2)), and 3) while inhaling 100% O(2). Tissue Doppler recordings were acquired in the apical 4-chamber, 2-chamber, and long-axis views. Strain rate and tissue tracking displacement analyses were carried out in each segment of the 16-segment left ventricular model and in the basal, middle and apical portions of the right ventricle. RESULTS: Heart rate increased with hypoxia (68 ± 4 bpm at normoxia vs. 79 ± 5 bpm, P < 0.001) and decreased with hyperoxia (59 ± 5 bpm, P < 0.001 vs. normoxia). Hypoxia increased strain rate in four left ventricular segments and global systolic contraction amplitude was increased (normoxia: 9.76 ± 0.41 vs hypoxia: 10.87 ± 0.42, P < 0.001). Tissue tracking displacement was reduced in the right ventricular segments and tricuspid regurgitation increased with hypoxia (7.5 ± 1.9 mmHg vs. 33.5 ± 1.8 mmHg, P < 0.001). The TEI index and E/E' did not change with hypoxia. Hyperoxia reduced strain rate in 10 left ventricular segments, global systolic contraction amplitude was decreased (8.83 ± 0.38, P < 0.001 vs. normoxia) while right ventricular function was unchanged. The spectral and tissue Doppler TEI indexes were significantly increased but E/E' did not change with hyperoxia. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia improves and hyperoxia worsens systolic myocardial performance in healthy male volunteers. Tissue Doppler measures of diastolic function are unaffected by hypoxia/hyperoxia which support that the changes in myocardial performance are secondary to changes in vascular tone. It remains to be settled whether oxygen therapy to patients with heart disease is a consistent rational treatment

    Exercise-Stress Echocardiography Reveals Systolic Anterior Motion of the Mitral Valve as a Cause of Syncopes in a Cardiac Amyloidosis Patient

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    Patients with cardiac amyloidosis are at increased AV-block and syncope risk. Therefore, a prophylactic pacemaker is often implanted. However, this case illustrates that other mechanisms should be ruled out prior to pacemaker implantation. The patient studied had mitral valve thickening without increased left ventricular outflow track (LVOT) velocity. However, bicycle exercise-stress test with simultaneous echocardiography revealed a stepwise decrease in blood pressure, a substantial increase in the LVOT velocity, and severe systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. The patients’ symptoms were likely explained by these findings. Therefore, a comprehensive clinical evaluation is warranted prior to pacemaker implantation in cardiac amyloidosis patients