14 research outputs found

    The Government-led initiative for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) scale-up in Cameroon: programme development and initial evaluation

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    In 2016, the government of Cameroon, a central African country heavily reliant on wood fuel for cooking, published a Masterplan for increasing primary use of LPG from 20% to 58% of households by 2035. Developed via a multi-sectoral committee with support from the Global LPG Partnership, the plan envisages a 400 million Euro investment program to 2030, focused on increasing LPG cylinder numbers, key infrastructure, and enhanced regulation. This case study describes the Masterplan process and investment proposals and draws on community studies and stakeholder interviews to identify factors likely to impact on the planned expansion of LPG use

    31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016) : part two

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    Background The immunological escape of tumors represents one of the main ob- stacles to the treatment of malignancies. The blockade of PD-1 or CTLA-4 receptors represented a milestone in the history of immunotherapy. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors seem to be effective in specific cohorts of patients. It has been proposed that their efficacy relies on the presence of an immunological response. Thus, we hypothesized that disruption of the PD-L1/PD-1 axis would synergize with our oncolytic vaccine platform PeptiCRAd. Methods We used murine B16OVA in vivo tumor models and flow cytometry analysis to investigate the immunological background. Results First, we found that high-burden B16OVA tumors were refractory to combination immunotherapy. However, with a more aggressive schedule, tumors with a lower burden were more susceptible to the combination of PeptiCRAd and PD-L1 blockade. The therapy signifi- cantly increased the median survival of mice (Fig. 7). Interestingly, the reduced growth of contralaterally injected B16F10 cells sug- gested the presence of a long lasting immunological memory also against non-targeted antigens. Concerning the functional state of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), we found that all the immune therapies would enhance the percentage of activated (PD-1pos TIM- 3neg) T lymphocytes and reduce the amount of exhausted (PD-1pos TIM-3pos) cells compared to placebo. As expected, we found that PeptiCRAd monotherapy could increase the number of antigen spe- cific CD8+ T cells compared to other treatments. However, only the combination with PD-L1 blockade could significantly increase the ra- tio between activated and exhausted pentamer positive cells (p= 0.0058), suggesting that by disrupting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis we could decrease the amount of dysfunctional antigen specific T cells. We ob- served that the anatomical location deeply influenced the state of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. In fact, TIM-3 expression was in- creased by 2 fold on TILs compared to splenic and lymphoid T cells. In the CD8+ compartment, the expression of PD-1 on the surface seemed to be restricted to the tumor micro-environment, while CD4 + T cells had a high expression of PD-1 also in lymphoid organs. Interestingly, we found that the levels of PD-1 were significantly higher on CD8+ T cells than on CD4+ T cells into the tumor micro- environment (p < 0.0001). Conclusions In conclusion, we demonstrated that the efficacy of immune check- point inhibitors might be strongly enhanced by their combination with cancer vaccines. PeptiCRAd was able to increase the number of antigen-specific T cells and PD-L1 blockade prevented their exhaus- tion, resulting in long-lasting immunological memory and increased median survival

    UNBOUND

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    Featured here, are the extraordinary works of our graduating Fanshawe Design class. This accomplishment is truly a celebration of the three years of passion, hard work, and dedication put forth by our students. It is our greatest hope that family, friends and the fashion industry will enjoy the creative endeavors of these emerging designers from the Fashion Design program at Fanshawe College in London, Ontario.https://first.fanshawec.ca/famd_design_fashiondesign_unbound/1001/thumbnail.jp

    Survey of Pathogens in Poultry Litter in the United States

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    Poultry litter is one of many components resulting from the production of broilers. Understanding poultry litter microbiological composition is very beneficial when attempting to improve the broiler\u27s environmental conditions and searching for the best uses for this valuable industry by-product. The objective of this study was to collect samples of poultry litter throughout the United States and determine the presence of bacteria in the litter. Tests were conducted for total bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus, Escherichia coli, and coliforms. Poultry litter samples were taken from 12 different regions throughout the United States and were analyzed in one central laboratory. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant difference (P\u3c.05) among regions for each category of bacteria samples, excluding E. coli. The relationship between litter bacterial load and litter pH was also examined. No significant differences were present, but in general, higher litter pH and higher bacterial load were correlated

    Calendar of entries in the Papal registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland. : Papal letters, 1198- ... /

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    Vol. 13 issued in co-operation with the Irish Manuscripts Commission; v. 15-20 published: Dublin : Stationery Office for the Irish Manuscripts Commission.Editors: v. 1-5, W.H. Bliss (with C. Johnson, v. 3, J.A. Twemlow, v. 4-5); v. 6-16, J.A. Twemlow; v.17, Anne P. Fuller; v. 18-19, Michael J. Haren; v.20, Anne P. Fuller.1. 1198-1304 -- 2. 1305-1342 -- 3. 1342-1362 -- 4. 1362-1404 -- 5. 1396-1404 -- 6. 1404-1415 -- 7. 1417-1431 -- 8. 1427-1447 -- 9. 1431-1447 -- 10. 1447-1455 -- 11. 1455-1464 -- 12. 1458-1471 -- 13. 1471-1484. 2 v. -- 14. 1484-1492 -- v. 15. 1484-1492 -- v. 16. 1492-1498.-- v. 17. pt.1 Alexander VI (1492-1503) Lateran Registers part two: 1495-1503 -- v. 18. Pius III and Julius II Vatican Registers (1503-1513) Lateran Registers (1503-1508) -- v. 19. 1503-1513 Julius II Lateran Registers, pt. 2 -- v.20. 1513-1521 Leo X, Lateran Registers, pt. 1Mode of access: Internet

    Can the Communion of Saints Help the Search for Justice in Dying well (Enough), “In Abraham's Arms, Where Lazarus is Poor no Longer”?

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