3,136 research outputs found

    Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Large-Sized Telescope Prototype of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies. The Large-Sized Telescope prototype (\LST{}) is located at the Northern site of CTA, on the Canary Island of La Palma. LSTs are designed to provide optimal performance in the lowest part of the energy range covered by CTA, down to ‚ČÉ20\simeq 20 GeV. \LST{} started performing astronomical observations in November 2019, during its commissioning phase, and it has been taking data since then. We present the first \LST{} observations of the Crab Nebula, the standard candle of very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy, and use them, together with simulations, to assess the basic performance parameters of the telescope. The data sample consists of around 36 hours of observations at low zenith angles collected between November 2020 and March 2022. \LST{} has reached the expected performance during its commissioning period - only a minor adjustment of the preexisting simulations was needed to match the telescope behavior. The energy threshold at trigger level is estimated to be around 20 GeV, rising to ‚ČÉ30\simeq 30 GeV after data analysis. Performance parameters depend strongly on energy, and on the strength of the gamma-ray selection cuts in the analysis: angular resolution ranges from 0.12 to 0.40 degrees, and energy resolution from 15 to 50\%. Flux sensitivity is around 1.1\% of the Crab Nebula flux above 250 GeV for a 50-h observation (12\% for 30 minutes). The spectral energy distribution (in the 0.03 - 30 TeV range) and the light curve obtained for the Crab Nebula agree with previous measurements, considering statistical and systematic uncertainties. A clear periodic signal is also detected from the pulsar at the center of the Nebula.Comment: Submitted to Ap

    Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Large-Sized Telescope Prototype of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    International audienceCTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies. The Large-Sized Telescope prototype (\LST) is located at the Northern site of CTA, on the Canary Island of La Palma. LSTs are designed to provide optimal performance in the lowest part of the energy range covered by CTA, down to ‚ČÉ20\simeq 20 GeV. \LST started performing astronomical observations in November 2019, during its commissioning phase, and it has been taking data since then. We present the first \LST observations of the Crab Nebula, the standard candle of very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy, and use them, together with simulations, to assess the basic performance parameters of the telescope. The data sample consists of around 36 hours of observations at low zenith angles collected between November 2020 and March 2022. \LST has reached the expected performance during its commissioning period - only a minor adjustment of the preexisting simulations was needed to match the telescope behavior. The energy threshold at trigger level is estimated to be around 20 GeV, rising to ‚ČÉ30\simeq 30 GeV after data analysis. Performance parameters depend strongly on energy, and on the strength of the gamma-ray selection cuts in the analysis: angular resolution ranges from 0.12 to 0.40 degrees, and energy resolution from 15 to 50%. Flux sensitivity is around 1.1% of the Crab Nebula flux above 250 GeV for a 50-h observation (12% for 30 minutes). The spectral energy distribution (in the 0.03 - 30 TeV range) and the light curve obtained for the Crab Nebula agree with previous measurements, considering statistical and systematic uncertainties. A clear periodic signal is also detected from the pulsar at the center of the Nebula

    Performance of the joint LST-1 and MAGIC observations evaluated with Crab Nebula data

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    International audienceAims. LST-1, the prototype of the Large-Sized Telescope for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, is concluding its commissioning in Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma. The proximity of LST-1 (Large-Sized Telescope 1) to the two MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes permits observations of the same gamma-ray events with both systems. Methods. We describe the joint LST-1+MAGIC analysis pipeline and use simultaneous Crab Nebula observations and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the performance of the three-telescope system. The addition of the LST-1 telescope allows the recovery of events in which one of the MAGIC images is too dim to survive analysis quality cuts. Results. Thanks to the resulting increase in the collection area and stronger background rejection, we find a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing the detection of 30% weaker fluxes in the energy range between 200 GeV and 3 TeV. The spectrum of the Crab Nebula, reconstructed in the energy range ~60 GeV to ~10 TeV, is in agreement with previous measurements

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

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    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 10^3 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Prospects for a survey of the Galactic plane with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    International audienceApproximately one hundred sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays are known in the Milky Way. A survey of the entire Galactic Plane in the energy range from a few tens of GeV to a few hundred TeV has been proposed as a Key Science Project for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO). This article presents the status of the studies towards the Galactic Plane Survey (GPS). We build and make publicly available a sky model that combines data from observations of known gamma-ray emitters with state-of-the-art physically-driven models of synthetic populations of the main classes of established Galactic VHE sources, as well as of interstellar emission from cosmic-ray interactions in the Milky Way. We also perform an optimisation of the observation strategy. We use the improved sky model and observation strategy to simulate GPS data that are analysed using the methods and software tools under development for real data. We show that the GPS has the potential to increase the number of known Galactic VHE emitters by almost a factor of five. This corresponds to the detection of more than two hundred pulsar wind nebulae and a few tens of supernova remnants at average integral fluxes one order of magnitude lower than in the existing sample above 1 TeV, therefore opening the possibility to perform unprecedented population studies. The GPS also has the potential to provide new VHE detections of binary systems and pulsars, and to identify any bright PeVatrons. Furthermore, the GPS will constitute a pathfinder for deeper follow-up observations of these source classes. Finally, we show that we can extract from GPS data an estimate of the contribution to diffuse emission from unresolved sources, and that there are good prospects of detecting interstellar emission and statistically distinguishing different scenarios. (Abridged

    ICARUS at the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino program: initial operation

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    Abstract The ICARUS collaboration employed the 760-ton T600 detector in a successful 3-year physics run at the underground LNGS laboratory, performing a sensitive search for LSND-like anomalous őĹe\nu _e őĹ e appearance in the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso beam, which contributed to the constraints on the allowed neutrino oscillation parameters to a narrow region around 1 eV 2^2 2 . After a significant overhaul at CERN, the T600 detector has been installed at Fermilab. In 2020 the cryogenic commissioning began with detector cool down, liquid argon filling and recirculation. ICARUS then started its operations collecting the first neutrino events from the booster neutrino beam (BNB) and the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam off-axis, which were used to test the ICARUS event selection, reconstruction and analysis algorithms. ICARUS successfully completed its commissioning phase in June 2022. The first goal of the ICARUS data taking will be a study to either confirm or refute the claim by Neutrino-4 short-baseline reactor experiment. ICARUS will also perform measurement of neutrino cross sections with the NuMI beam and several Beyond Standard Model searches. After the first year of operations, ICARUS will search for evidence of sterile neutrinos jointly with the Short-Baseline Near Detector, within the Short-Baseline Neutrino program. In this paper, the main activities carried out during the overhauling and installation phases are highlighted. Preliminary technical results from the ICARUS commissioning data with the BNB and NuMI beams are presented both in terms of performance of all ICARUS subsystems and of capability to select and reconstruct neutrino events

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU