8 research outputs found

    The Process of Human Aging and Involution Changes in the Brain

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    The aging process and systemic changes occurring in it have an impact on the brain. Commonly observed symptoms of an old age such as cognitive impairment and slowness of movement are the illustration of the changes in the brain. These changes are for brain structure, quantities of neurotransmitters and hormonal activity. We can partially modify the time and the dynamics of the development of evolutional changes through an appropriate preventive action.Proces starzenia i og贸lnoustrojowe zmiany w nim zachodz膮ce nie pozostaj膮 bez wp艂ywu na m贸zgowie. Powszechnie obserwowane objawy staro艣ci takie jak zaburzenia poznawcze, czy spowolnienie ruchowe s膮 odzwierciedleniem zmian w m贸zgu. Zmiany te dotycz膮 struktury m贸zgu, ilo艣ci neurotransmitter贸w czy aktywno艣ci hormonalnej. Cz臋艣ciowo mo偶emy modyfikowa膰 czas i dynamik臋 rozwoju zmian inwolucyjnych, poprzez w艂a艣ciwe dzia艂ania profilaktyczne

    NURSE鈥橲 ROLE IN TAKING CARE OF A PATIENT WITH ALZHEIMER鈥橲 DISEASE

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    Along with the development of medicine, the duration of human life lengthened. Thus, the number of people that live to a great age has increased. One of the main health issues concerning people in old age is dementia. The most common cause of dementia that occurs after 65 years of age is Alzheimer鈥檚 disease. The course of the disease is progressive and it gradually leads to the situation when a patient is dependent on others. In most cases, the burden of care of a person with Alzheimer鈥檚 disease falls on the family members and friends. It is not an easy task. Often the family is not able to provide a proper patient care and therefore, it requires comprehensive medical, social, educational and financial help. The present study describes an important role of nurses, who not only accompany patients and their caregivers, but also educate and support them.Wraz z post臋pem medycyny wyd艂u偶y艂o si臋 trwanie 偶ycia ludzkiego. Zwi臋ksza si臋 wi臋c liczba os贸b do偶ywaj膮cych wieku s臋dziwego. Jednym z najwi臋kszych problem贸w zdrowotnych os贸b w podesz艂ym wieku jest ot臋pienie. Najcz臋stsz膮 z przyczyn ot臋pienia wyst臋puj膮cego po 65 roku 偶ycia jest choroba Alzheimera. Przebieg schorzenia jest post臋puj膮cy i stopniowo prowadzi do uzale偶nienia chorego od innych. Przewa偶nie ci臋偶ar opieki nad cz艂owiekiem z chorob膮 Alzheimera spada na osoby najbli偶sze. Nie jest to 艂atwe zadanie. Cz臋sto rodzina nie jest w stanie zapewni膰 odpowiedniej opieki choremu, dlatego wymaga wszechstronnej pomocy medycznej, spo艂ecznej, edukacyjnej i finansowej. W niniejszej pracy opisano bardzo wa偶n膮 rol臋 piel臋gniarek, kt贸re towarzysz膮 chorym i ich opiekunom, edukuj膮 i wspieraj膮 ich

    Wisdom of the elderly

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    In the studies on wisdom of the elderly, there are two kinds of wisdom: pragmatic and transcendent (spiritual), which is a general respond to the world and is associated with the level of personality development. Through its specific context, old age creates conditions for achieving wisdom. The fact whether these opportunities will be used and lead to the development of human personality in old age depends on the individuals.W badaniach nad m膮dro艣ci膮 os贸b starszych wyr贸偶nia si臋 dwa rodzaje m膮dro艣ci: pragmatyczn膮 i transcendentn膮 (ducho-w膮), kt贸ra jest og贸lnym ustosunkowaniem do 艣wiata i zwi膮-zana jest z poziomem rozwoju osobowo艣ci. Przez sw贸j specyficzny kontekst, staro艣膰 stwarza warunki do osi膮gania m膮dro艣ci. Tylko od konkretnych jednostek zale偶y czy wykorzystaj膮 te mo偶liwo艣ci i doprowadz膮 do rozwoju osobo-wo艣ci cz艂owieka w okresie staro艣ci

    Psychological determinants of life balance

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    The problem of life balance in the elderly has been of interest of many scientists who have undertaken research in different environments and among large populations. As a result of these studies, key determinants of life balance, which mainly affect the positive or negative balance of life in the elderly, have been developedProblem bilansu 偶yciowego ludzi w podesz艂ym wieku interesowa艂 wielu naukowc贸w, kt贸rzy podejmowali badania w r贸偶nych 艣rodowiskach i na du偶ych liczebnie populacjach. W wyniku tych bada艅 opracowane zosta艂y najwa偶niejsze determinanty bilansu 偶yciowego, kt贸re w g艂贸wnej mierze wp艂ywaj膮 na dodatni b膮d藕 ujemny bilans 偶yciowy os贸b w starszym wiek

    Place of the elderly and diversity of their life situation in today鈥檚 society

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    According to GUS data of December 2014, the share of the population aged 65 years and above in the total population of Poland in 2013 was 14.7% (every seventh citizen of the country). Forecasts for the upcoming years are as follows: in 2020 - 18.9%, in 2035 - 24.5% and in 2050 - 32.7%. The percentage of people aged 65 years and older is called aging of the population factor. Among these people, 35.81% are rural residents. In the cities, elderly population accounts for almost 16% of the whole population; in rural areas this number is significantly smaller and accounts for slightly more than 13% of the population. However, it is expected that due to growing migration, in a short time, most seniors will live in cities. As a result, the share of the elderly will exceed 30% in rural areas, while in the cities it will come close to 35%. The majority of the elderly are women (approx. 61%). This is due to the higher mortality of men - women now live five years longer on average. Forecasts indicate that in 30 years every third citizen of our country will belong to the group of older people [1, 2].Wed艂ug danych GUS-u, z grudnia 2014 roku, udzia艂 ludno艣ci w wieku 65 lat i powy偶ej w populacji og贸艂em w Polsce wyni贸s艂 w roku 2013 鈥 14, 7 % (co si贸dmy obywatel kraju). Prognozy na kolejne lata przedstawiaj膮 si臋 nast臋puj膮co: w 2020 鈥 18,9%, w 2035 鈥 24,5%, a w 2050 鈥 32,7%. Odsetek os贸b w wieku 65 lat i wi臋cej jest nazywany wsp贸艂czynnikiem staro艣ci danej populacji. W艣r贸d tych os贸b 35,81 % to mieszka艅cy wsi. W miastach ludno艣膰 w starszym wieku stanowi prawie 16% populacji; na terenach wiejskich mieszka ich zdecydowanie mniej i stanowi膮 niewiele ponad 13% mieszka艅c贸w wsi.聽 Przewiduje si臋 jednak, 偶e na skutek rosn膮cej migracji, w nied艂ugim czasie wi臋kszo艣膰 senior贸w b臋dzie zamieszkiwa艂a w miastach. W rezultacie udzia艂 os贸b starszych przekroczy 30% na obszarach wiejskich, natomiast w miastach zbli偶y si臋 do 35%. Wi臋ksza cz臋艣膰 os贸b starszych jest p艂ci 偶e艅skiej (ok. 61 %). Wynika to z wy偶szej umieralno艣ci m臋偶czyzn 鈥 kobiety 偶yj膮 dzi艣 przeci臋tnie o 5 lat d艂u偶ej. Prognozy wskazuj膮, 偶e za 30 lat ju偶 co trzeci obywatel naszego kraju b臋dzie nale偶a艂 do grupy os贸b w starszym wieku [1, 2]

    Dynamics of changes in the mental sphere of man

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    Life-span psychology assumes that development is multidimensional and multidirectional process that lasts throughout life, from birth until death. The cycle of this process includes both progression and regressive changes. Changes in cognitive functioning appearing in the elderly are the result of transformations occurring in the nervous system. This leads to a reduction in psychomotor skills, memory processes, learning as well as changes in thinking, emotions and motivation. Older people, however, do not lose the ability to participate in the intellectual life. The decrease in efficiency does not occur simultaneously in all directions nor equally. Due to the body's compensatory abilities, new intellectual capabilities may occur in older people. Mental training, especially cultivated throughout life, including old age, is of great importance for maintaining cognitive performance in the elderly.Psychologia life-span zak艂ada, 偶e rozw贸j jest procesem wielowymiarowym i wielokierunkowym, kt贸ry trwa przez ca艂e 偶ycie, od momentu narodzin, a偶 do 艣mierci. W trakcie tego procesu zachodzi zar贸wno progresja, jak i zmiany wsteczne. Pojawiaj膮ce si臋 w wieku podesz艂ym zmiany w fun-kcjonowaniu poznawczym, s膮 konsekwencj膮 przeobra偶e艅 zachodz膮cych w uk艂adzie nerwowym. Dochodzi do obni偶e-nia zdolno艣ci psychomotorycznych, proces贸w zapami臋-tywania, uczenia si臋, a tak偶e zmian w zakresie my艣lenia, emocji oraz motywacji. Osoby starsze nie zatracaj膮 jednak zdolno艣ci do uczestniczenia w 偶yciu intelektualnym. Spadek sprawno艣ci nie nast臋puje jednocze艣nie we wszystkich kierunkach i w jednakowym stopniu. Dzi臋ki kompens-acyjnym zdolno艣ciom organizmu, mog膮 pojawia膰 si臋 u star-szych os贸b nowe mo偶liwo艣ci intelektualne. Du偶e znaczenie dla podtrzymania sprawno艣ci poznawczych os贸b w starszym wieku ma trening umys艂owy, zw艂aszcza uprawiany przez ca艂e 偶ycie ze staro艣ci膮 w艂膮cznie

    Usefulness of the Polish versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment 7.2 and the Mini-Mental State Examination as screening instruments for the detection of mild neurocognitive disorder

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    Introduction. Screening tests are a key step in the diagnosis of dementia and should therefore be highly sensitive to the detection of mild neurocognitive disorders (NCD). The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most commonly used screening method. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a newer and less well-known screening tool, which has none of the limitations of the MMSE.Aim. The aim of this study was to analyse the reliability of the Polish versions of MoCA 7.2 vs MMSE in the detection of mild NCD among people aged over 60.Material and methods. The study was carried out at the Department and Clinic of Geriatrics from September 2014 to March 2017. The study included 281 participants, 91 of whom were assigned to the group without NCD. The other 190 had been diagnosed with mild NCD.Results. In the analysis of the ROC curve of the MoCA 7.2 results, the AUC was 0.925 (p < 0.001). The optimal cut-off point for mild NCD was 23/24 points, with sensitivity and specificity of 83.2% and 79.1%. In the ROC curve of MMSE results, the AUC was 0.847 (p < 0.001). The optimal cut-off point for mild NCD was 27/28 points, with sensitivity and specificity of 75.8% and 66.7%. The difference between AUC MoCA 7.2 and MMSE was 0.078 (p = 0.036).Conclusions. MoCA 7.2 detects mild NCD with more sensitivity than MMSE. We recommend using the cut-off point for MoCA of 23/24 points, because this is characterised by a higher sensitivity than the previously recommended cut-off point of 25/26 points. For the MMSE, the recommended cut-off point should be 27/28, which gives greater diagnostic accuracy than the previously recommended 25/26 points
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