44 research outputs found

    Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune optic neuropathy

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    Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy: a systematic review of 122 cases reported

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    Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) is an entity that was described in 2003. Early recognition of patients suffering from CRION is relevant because of the associated risk for blindness if treated inappropriately. It seems timely to have a clinical review on this recently defined entity. A systematic literature review, irrespective of language, retrieved 22 case series and single reports describing 122 patients with CRION between 2003 and 2013. We review the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, differential diagnosis, and treatment (acute, intermediate, and long term) in view of the collective data. These data suggest that CRION is a distinct nosological entity, which is seronegative for anti-aquaporin four auto-antibodies and recognized by and managed through its dependency on immuno-suppression. Revised diagnostic criteria are proposed in light of the data compromising a critical discussion of relevant limitations. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

    Patterns of non-embolic transient monocular visual field loss

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    Spasmodic torticollis due to a midbrain lesion in a case of multiple sclerosis

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    A case of multiple sclerosis is described in which spasmodic torticollis occurred abruplty and abated after 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a lesion in the mesencephalon. Other symptoms and physical signs that developed at the same time as the spasmodic torticollis were compatible with the lesion that had not been present on MRI 18 months previously. There are very few reports of spasmodic torticollis due to an identified focal lesion; there is evidence form experimental work on animals that midbrain lesions may cause spasmodic torticollis but there has been no previous human example

    Behçet's disease with slowly enlarging midbrain mass on MRI: resolution following steroid therapy

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    We describe a case of Behçet's disease with a slowly enlarging midbrain mass on magnetic resonance imaging, which resolved after 4 months of oral steroids

    Matrix Metalloproteinases in Myasthenia Gravis

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    Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease with weakness in striated musculature due to anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies or muscle specific kinase at the neuromuscular junction. A subgroup of patients has periocular symptoms only; ocular MG (OMG). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are increased in several autoimmune diseases, including generalized MG (GMG), and have been suggested to play a role in immune cell infiltration, basement membrane breakdown and autoimmune pathogenesis. Methods: Total levels of MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 were measured in serum by ELISA. Results: The MG patients had increased serum levels of MMP2 (median values 200.7 vs. 159.7 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and MMP9 (median values 629.6 vs. 386.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001) compared to controls. A subgroup of patients had increased MMP3 concentration (p = 0.001). The differences were not dependent on presence of AChR antibodies. No difference was observed between GMG and OMG patients with regard to MMP2 (p = 0.598), MMP3 (p = 0.450) and MMP9 (p = 0.271). Discussion: The increased MMP levels in our MG patients group and the lack of dependence on anti-AChR antibodies suggest that MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 play a role in the development of MG. The similarities between GMG and OMG support OMG as a systemic disease. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Base

    Selective magnetization transfer ratio decrease in the visual cortex following optic neuritis

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    Patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis have evidence for abnormality in normal appearing grey matter detected using the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), a quantitative MRI measure. One potential mechanism for the decreased grey matter MTR (GM MTR) observed is trans-synaptic morphological abnormality secondary to demyelinating lesions that are in an anatomically linked pathway but remote location. We investigated this potential association by studying the location of abnormalities using voxel-based analysis of GM MTR maps in a group of 80 patients studied within 6 months of presenting with isolated optic neuritis and compared the findings with those seen in 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Occipital cortex and whole brain analysis comparing all optic neuritis patients and controls revealed a selective decrease of MTR bilaterally in the visual cortex in patients [Brodmann area (BA) 17]. Whole brain analysis of patients fulfilling the McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis (n = 20) showed a lower MTR compared to controls bilaterally in the visual cortex (BA 17/18), left hippocampus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral lenticular nuclei and the right cerebellum. There was no significant difference in the percentage of grey matter between patients and controls in the regions of abnormal MTR detected in the visual cortex. The intrinsic MTR decrease seen in patients suggests that there are structural changes in the visual cortex following an attack of optic neuritis. Potential mechanisms for this include trans-synaptic neuronal degeneration and cortical synaptic morphological changes; such abnormalities may also contribute to MTR abnormalities observed in the normal appearing grey matter in multiple sclerosis
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