1,113 research outputs found

    EMDR v. other psychological therapies for PTSD: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis

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    Background: This systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) examined the overall effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, achieving response and remission, and reducing treatment dropout among adults with PTSD compared to other psychological treatments. Additionally, we examined available participant-level moderators of the efficacy of EMDR. Methods: This study included randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies were identified by a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, PsyclNFO, PTSDpubs, and CENTRAL. The target population was adults with above-threshold baseline PTSD symptoms. Trials were eligible if at least 70% of study participants had been diagnosed with PTSD using a structured clinical interview. Primary outcomes included PTSD symptom severity, treatment response, and PTSD remission. Treatment dropout was a secondary outcome. The systematic search retrieved 15 eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs); 8 of these 15 were able to be included in this IPDMA (346 patients). Comparator treatments included relaxation therapy, emotional freedom technique, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, and REM-desensitization. Results: One-stage IPDMA found no significant difference between EMDR and other psychological treatments in reducing PTSD symptom severity (β = -0.24), achieving response (β = 0.86), attaining remission (β = 1.05), or reducing treatment dropout rates (β = -0.25). Moderator analyses found unemployed participants receiving EMDR had higher PTSD symptom severity at the post-test, and males were more likely to drop out of EMDR treatment than females. Conclusion: The current study found no significant difference between EMDR and other psychological treatments. We found some indication of the moderating effects of gender and employment status

    Impairments in psychological functioning in refugees and asylum seekers

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    © 2024 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/Refugees are at increased risk for developing psychological impairments due to stressors in the pre-, peri- and post-migration periods. There is limited knowledge on how everyday functioning is affected by migration experience. In a secondary analysis of a study in a sample of refugees and asylum seekers, it was examined how aspects of psychological functioning were differentially affected. 1,101 eligible refugees and asylum seekers in Europe and Türkiye were included in a cross-sectional analysis. Gender, age, education, number of relatives and children living nearby, as well as indicators for depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, quality of life, psychological well-being and functioning, and lifetime potentially traumatic events were assessed. Correlations and multiple regression models with World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) 12-item version’s total and six subdomains’ scores (‘mobility’, ‘life activities’, ‘cognition’, ‘participation’, ‘self-care’, ‘getting along’) as dependent variables were calculated. Tests for multicollinearity and Bonferroni correction were applied. Participants reported highest levels of impairment in ‘mobility’ and ‘participation’, followed by ‘life activities’ and ‘cognition’. Depression and posttraumatic symptoms were independently associated with overall psychological functioning and all subdomains. History of violence and abuse seemed to predict higher impairment in ‘participation’, while past events of being close to death were associated with fewer issues with ‘self-care’. Impairment in psychological functioning in asylum seekers and refugees was related to current psychological symptoms. Mobility and participation issues may explain difficulties arising after resettlement in integration and exchange with host communities in new contexts.Peer reviewe

    Non-directive supportive therapy for depression:A meta-analytic review

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    Background: Non-directive supportive therapy (NDST) is an important treatment of adult depression, but no recent meta-analysis has integrated the randomized trials examining its effects. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis comparing NDST to control conditions and to other therapies, by using an existing database of randomized trials of psychological treatments of depression in adults. This database was built through searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results: 48 randomized controlled trials (5075 participants), with 20 comparisons between NDST and a control group and 49 comparisons between NDST and another psychotherapy were included. Random effects meta-analyses found an effect size of NDST compared with control conditions of g = 0.53 (95 % CI, 0.34; 0.72) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 51; 95 % CI: 18; 71; PI = −0.02 to 1.09). NDST was less effective than other therapies (g = −0.21; 95 % CI: −0.31; −0.11). The difference with other therapies was significantly larger in studies in which NDST was used as a control group (p = .003). There was no significant difference between NDST and other therapies in which NDST was not used as a control group (k = 14; g = −0.05; 95 % CI: −0.17; 0.07). Conclusions: NDST probably is an effective treatment of depression. The effects may be somewhat smaller than those of other therapies, but that may also be an artefact, because NDST is often used as a control group and may be designed as an “intent-to-fail” intervention in some studies.</p

    Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of online recorded recovery narratives in improving quality of life for people with non-psychotic mental health problems: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

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    Narratives describing first-hand experiences of recovery from mental health problems are widely available. Emerging evidence suggests that engaging with mental health recovery narratives can benefit people experiencing mental health problems, but no randomized controlled trial has been conducted as yet. We developed the Narrative Experiences Online (NEON) Intervention, a web application providing self-guided and recommender systems access to a collection of recorded mental health recovery narratives (n=659). We investigated whether NEON Intervention access benefited adults experiencing non-psychotic mental health problems by conducting a pragmatic parallel-group randomized trial, with usual care as control condition. The primary endpoint was quality of life at week 52 assessed by the Manchester Short Assessment (MANSA). Secondary outcomes were psychological distress, hope, self-efficacy, and meaning in life at week 52. Between March 9, 2020 and March 26, 2021, we recruited 1,023 participants from across England (the target based on power analysis was 994), of whom 827 (80.8%) identified as White British, 811 (79.3%) were female, 586 (57.3%) were employed, and 272 (26.6%) were unemployed. Their mean age was 38.4±13.6 years. Mood and/or anxiety disorders (N=626, 61.2%) and stress-related disorders (N=152, 14.9%) were the most common mental health problems. At week 52, our intention-to-treat analysis found a significant baseline-adjusted difference of 0.13 (95% CI: 0.01-0.26, p=0.041) in the MANSA score between the intervention and control groups, corresponding to a mean change of 1.56 scale points per participant, indicating that the intervention increased quality of life. We also detected a significant baseline-adjusted difference of 0.22 (95% CI: 0.05-0.40, p=0.014) between the groups in the score on the “presence of meaning” subscale of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, corresponding to a mean change of 1.1 scale points per participant. We found an incremental gain of 0.0142 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (95% credible interval: 0.0059 to 0.0226) and a £178 incremental increase in cost (95% credible interval: –£154 to £455) per participant, generating an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £12,526 per QALY compared with usual care. This was lower than the £20,000 per QALY threshold used by the National Health Service in England, indicating that the intervention would be a cost-effective use of health service resources. In the subgroup analysis including participants who had used specialist mental health services at baseline, the intervention both reduced cost (–£98, 95% credible interval: –£606 to £309) and improved QALYs (0.0165, 95% credible interval: 0.0057 to 0.0273) per participant as compared to usual care. We conclude that the NEON Intervention is an effective and cost-effective new intervention for people experiencing non-psychotic mental health problem

    Table_1_Impairments in psychological functioning in refugees and asylum seekers.DOCX

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    Refugees are at increased risk for developing psychological impairments due to stressors in the pre-, peri- and post-migration periods. There is limited knowledge on how everyday functioning is affected by migration experience. In a secondary analysis of a study in a sample of refugees and asylum seekers, it was examined how aspects of psychological functioning were differentially affected. 1,101 eligible refugees and asylum seekers in Europe and Türkiye were included in a cross-sectional analysis. Gender, age, education, number of relatives and children living nearby, as well as indicators for depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, quality of life, psychological well-being and functioning, and lifetime potentially traumatic events were assessed. Correlations and multiple regression models with World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) 12-item version’s total and six subdomains’ scores (‘mobility’, ‘life activities’, ‘cognition’, ‘participation’, ‘self-care’, ‘getting along’) as dependent variables were calculated. Tests for multicollinearity and Bonferroni correction were applied. Participants reported highest levels of impairment in ‘mobility’ and ‘participation’, followed by ‘life activities’ and ‘cognition’. Depression and posttraumatic symptoms were independently associated with overall psychological functioning and all subdomains. History of violence and abuse seemed to predict higher impairment in ‘participation’, while past events of being close to death were associated with fewer issues with ‘self-care’. Impairment in psychological functioning in asylum seekers and refugees was related to current psychological symptoms. Mobility and participation issues may explain difficulties arising after resettlement in integration and exchange with host communities in new contexts.</p

    Additive effects of adjunctive app-based interventions for mental disorders - A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

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    Background: It is uncertain whether app-based interventions add value to existing mental health care. Objective: To examine the incremental effects of app-based interventions when used as adjunct to mental health interventions. Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases on September 15th, 2023, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on mental health interventions with an adjunct app-based intervention compared to the same intervention-only arm for adults with mental disorders or respective clinically relevant symptomatology. We conducted meta-analyses on symptoms of different mental disorders at postintervention. PROSPERO, CRD42018098545. Results: We identified 46 RCTs (4869 participants). Thirty-two adjunctive app-based interventions passively or actively monitored symptoms and behaviour, and in 13 interventions, the monitored data were sent to a therapist. We found additive effects on symptoms of depression (g = 0.17; 95 % CI 0.02 to 0.33; k = 7 comparisons), anxiety (g = 0.80; 95 % CI 0.06 to 1.54; k = 3), mania (g = 0.2; 95 % CI 0.02 to 0.38; k = 4), smoking cessation (g = 0.43; 95 % CI 0.29 to 0.58; k = 10), and alcohol use (g = 0.23; 95 % CI 0.08 to 0.39; k = 7). No significant effects were found on symptoms of depression within a bipolar disorder (g = -0.07; 95 % CI -0.37 to 0.23, k = 4) and eating disorders (g = -0.02; 95 % CI -0.44 to 0.4, k = 3). Studies on depression, mania, smoking, and alcohol use had a low heterogeneity between the trials. For other mental disorders, only single studies were identified. Only ten studies had a low risk of bias, and 25 studies reported insufficient statistical power. Discussion: App-based interventions may be used to enhance mental health interventions to further reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, mania, smoking, and alcohol use. However, the effects were small, except for anxiety, and limited due to study quality. Further high-quality research with larger sample sizes is warranted to better understand how app-based interventions can be most effectively combined with established interventions to improve outcomes

    Feasibility and uptake of a digital mental health intervention for depression among Lebanese and Syrian displaced people in Lebanon: a qualitative study

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    IntroductionDigital interventions are increasingly regarded as a potential solution for the inaccessibility of mental health treatment across low-and-middle-income settings, especially for common mental disorders. Step-by-Step (SbS) is a digital, guided self-help intervention for depression found effective in two Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) in Lebanon. For research implementation and further scale-up, this paper reports the results of a qualitative evaluation of SbS among the Lebanese and others and displaced Syrians in Lebanon.MethodsThirty-four Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were executed with participants of the RCTs, SbS staff members, and external stakeholders. Questions garnered feedback about the feasibility, acceptability, enabling factors, and barriers to adhering to the research, implementation, and the SbS intervention. A thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo, and key themes, topics, and recommendations, on research methods and the intervention itself, were generated and reported.ResultsResults showed a high level of acceptability of SbS among Lebanese and Syrians and identified sub-groups for whom acceptance or use might be lower, such as older adults and people with limited access to the internet or smartphones. Furthermore, interviews identified the main enabling factors and barriers to adherence related to the research design, content, and delivery approach. Barriers related to feasibility included lengthy assessments as part of the RCTs, and mistrust related to delays in study compensations. Other common challenges were forgetting login credentials, poor internet connection, being busy and competing needs. Enabling factors and best practices included motivating participants to use the intervention through the weekly support provided by helpers, setting an oral contract for commitment, and dividing the compensations into several installments as part of the RCTs. Recommendations regarding sustainability were given.DiscussionThe findings show that overall, SbS is feasible, acceptable, and much needed in Lebanon among the Lebanese and Syrians. This assessment identifies reasons for low adherence to the research and the intervention and presents improvement solutions. Recommendations generated in this paper inform the upscale of SbS and the planning, design, and implementation of future digital interventions in research and service provision settings in the mental health field

    The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapies for depression in China in comparison with the rest of the world:A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    OBJECTIVE: There is consistent evidence that cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) are effective interventions for adult depression. While some evidence has compared these effects in different countries, no prior systematic review and meta-analysis has compared the efficacy of CBTs between Chinese and people from the rest of the world. The current meta-analysis addressed this gap by a systematic review of eligible studies from Chinese and worldwide databases. METHOD: Hedges' g was calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses and multilevel meta-analytic models were conducted to examine the relationship among effect sizes and the characteristics in Chinese studies. Metaregression analyses were conducted to explore the difference of the efficacy of CBTs between Chinese studies and non-Chinese studies after controlling for the moderators. RESULTS: A total of 34 (n = 3,710) studies in China and 307 (n = 30,333) studies from the rest of the world were included. The effect size of CBTs on depression for Chinese participants was 1.19 (95% CI [0.86, 1.52]), which was higher (Q = 4.63, p = .03) than the effect size of the rest of the world (0.82, 95% CI [0.74, 0.90]). After controlling for moderators, the effect size of Chinese studies was still higher than non-Chinese studies (β = 0.351, p = .011). CONCLUSIONS: CBTs are effective interventions for adult depression and deserve more attention in China for depression management. Moderators related to study design, clinical features, and cultural factors need to be considered in the interpretation of the results. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).</p

    Replication Data for: Body- and movement-oriented interventions for PTSD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Title: Body- and movement-oriented interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Authors: Minke M. van de Kamp (1), Mia Scheffers (2), Claudia Emck (1), Ties J. Fokker (1), Janneke Hatzmann (2), Pim Cuijpers (1), and Peter J. Beek (1). Institutions: 1) Vrije Universiteit, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2) School of Health, Movement & Education, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Zwolle, the Netherlands. Data consist of Excel files containing data extracted from studies that were included in the meta-analyses, namely effect-size data (means, standard deviations and number of participants), data concerning subgroups and data for risk of bias analysis. Two independent authors (MvdK, JH, MS and TF) extracted the data independently between December 2017 and March 2023 for the same outcomes as in 2019, and additional outcomes sleep quality and interoceptive awareness. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion until consensus was reached. When any of these elements were missing or unclear, the authors of the study in question were contacted

    Efficacy and Moderators of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Psychosis Versus Other Psychological Interventions: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis

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    Background: Study-level meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Limitations of conventional meta-analysis may be addressed using individual-participant-data (IPD). We aimed to determine a) whether results from IPD were consistent with study-level meta-analyses and b) whether demographic and clinical characteristics moderate treatment outcome. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo and CENTRAL. Authors of RCTs comparing CBTp with other psychological interventions were contacted to obtain original databases. Hierarchical mixed effects models were used to examine efficacy for psychotic symptoms. Patient characteristics were investigated as moderators of symptoms at post-treatment. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for risk of bias, treatment format and study characteristics. Results: We included 14 of 23 eligible RCTs in IPD meta-analyses including 898 patients. Ten RCTs minimised risk of bias. There was no significant difference in efficacy between RCTs providing IPD and those not (p >0.05). CBTp was superior vs. other interventions for total psychotic symptoms and PANSS general symptoms. No demographic or clinical characteristics were robustly demonstrated as moderators of positive, negative, general or total psychotic symptoms at post-treatment. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that number of sessions moderated the impact of treatment assignment (CBTp or other therapies) on total psychotic symptoms (p = 0.02). Conclusions: IPD suggest that patient characteristics, including severity of psychotic symptoms, do not significantly influence treatment outcome in psychological interventions for psychosis while investing in sufficient dosage of CBTp is important. IPD provide roughly equivalent efficacy estimates to study-level data although significant benefit was not replicated for positive symptoms. We encourage authors to ensure IPD is accessible for future research
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